Articles and Scholarly Works

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Open access articles authored by members of the University of Minnesota community. For more information, see the University of Minnesota Open Access Policy for Scholarly Articles that went into effect January 2015.

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 379
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    Valuing state investments in clean water: An analysis of Minnesota’s Clean Water Fund through the lens of ecosystem services, equity, and climate change
    (2024-06) Keeler, Bonnie; Boiko, Olena; Hohensee, Taylor; Nichols, Rachel; Niehoff, Erin
    This report aims to support strategic planning through the duration of the Clean Water Land and Legacy amendment. Our goal is to provide insights to the Council and legislature to help inform remaining years of the fund, prioritize future allocations, and suggest recommendations for more efficient and equitable management. To address these gaps, we aligned our research with the following three objectives: 1. Estimating ecosystem service benefits of clean water investments, 2. Reviewing integration of climate and equity consideration in watershed planning, and 3. Evaluating potential costs of achieving multiple water quality goals through the expiration of the Clean Water Fund. Work under each objective included review of primary and secondary literatures, spatial data analysis and modeling, review and analysis of watershed plans, and assessment and synthesis of agency and academic data and reports to distill key insights and recommendations relevant for clean water planning and management.
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    Butterfly Production Management
    (Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, 1977) Kulman, H.M.
    A speculative overview of butterfly production management is presented which includes manipulation of habitats to enhance larval and adult food plants, accessibility and longevity of adults, early season introduction of migrants, and use of exotic butterflies and larval host plants. Concentration and accessibility of butterfly adults for viewing and collecting may be influenced by adult longevity, adult food sources, larval host plant odors, and other factors. Dangers to butterflies and their host plants by concentrating adults are discussed. Production management opportunities by manipulation of larval host plants appears to be much greater for expansion of the local and regional range of butterflies than for increasing butterfly density. The paucity of the literature does not permit general conclusions concerning population regulating factors, carrying capacity concepts, etc. However, there is sufficient observational data to guide experimental production management studies. Migratory species are considered for management although the carryover from management inputs are lower than with resident butterflies. Introduction of exotic species is limited mainly to butterflies useful in weed control programs. Speculative production research possibilities are given for the Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor ( L.); Black Swallowtail, Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll; Giant Swallowtail, Papilio cresphontes Cramer; Little Sulphur, Eurema lisa (Boisduval and Le Conte); Dainty Sulphur, Nathalis iole Boisduval; Baltimore, Euphydryas phaeton (Drury); and Monarch, Danaus plexippus ( L.).
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    Measuring the Effectiveness of Submersed Jets to Minimize Invasive Species Transport
    (St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2023-11-01) Erickson, Andrew J.; Herb, William R.
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    Measuring Infiltration within Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) Filtration and Infiltration Basins: Years 1-3
    (2024-06-01) Gulliver, John; Erickson, Andrew
    The City of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board have many infiltration practices that they are responsible for within their borders. It is desired to develop an efficient and effective means of establishing their performance as an infiltration practice and the maintenance protocols that will help keep these practices performing properly or to perform the appropriate maintenance on them. The objectives of the project are to investigate three methods of infiltration measurement, establish acceptable testing/sampling protocols on two example infiltration practices, develop data analysis algorithms and provide on-site training in conducting infiltration measurements.
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    Determining the Effect of Cell Culture Methods on the Polarization and Phenotype of Macrophages
    (2024) Lambrecht, Daniel; Chiu, Maggie; Provenzano, Paolo P.
    Macrophages play an important role in the regulation of cancer tumor microenvironments (TME). The specific role they play depends on their polarization, which is divided into two general phenotypes: M1, a pro-inflammatory phenotype, and M2, an anti-inflammatory phenotype known to support tumor growth. As the field of cancer research develops, there is an increased focus on understanding the role of the macrophage in the TME and how it can be manipulated to limit the growth of the tumor. Thus, it is important for researchers who are studying the macrophage’s role in the TME to know the phenotype of the macrophages that they are culturing in their research. The goal of this study was to observe the differentiation and polarization of macrophages during the standard cell culture protocol. We expected the macrophages to be fully differentiated after 7 days of culture with M-CSF and that cell passaging would result in a higher abundance of M1 polarized macrophages in culture. However, we found that macrophages are fully polarized after only 5 days of exposure to M-CSF and that passaging has no significant effect on macrophage polarization. This implies that macrophage differentiation protocols can be shortened with no loss in macrophage yield and that passaging is a suitable cell culture method for macrophages.
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    Effect of Virtual Versus In Person Interpreting on Diabetes Outcomes in Non-English Language Preference Patients: A Pilot Study
    (Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 2024-05-02) So, Marvin; Jadoo, Hailie; Stong, Jennifer; Klemenhagen, Kristen; Philbrick, Ann; Freeman, Kathryn
    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the impact of interpreter format (virtual vs in person) on clinical outcomes in patients with non-English language preference (NELP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a primary care setting. We hypothesized that NELP patients utilizing in person interpreters would have improved HbA1c values, better follow-up rate, and more complex care plans compared to patients utilizing virtual interpreters. Methods: We completed a retrospective chart review of 137 NELP patients with T2DM who required a medical interpreter (February to June 2021). We calculated univariate and bivariate statistics to characterize the sample and assess the extent to which measures of continuity (follow-up visit rate and time to follow-up visit), quality (change in HbA1c), and complexity (medication intervention complexity) were associated with interpreter type. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in follow-up rate or average days to follow-up visit for NELP patients with in person as opposed to virtual interpreters. Patients with virtual interpreters demonstrated a non-statistically significant decrease in HbA1c compared to those with in person interpreters. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between interpreter format and intervention complexity. Conclusions: Quality medical interpretation contributes to optimal health outcomes in NELP patients with diabetes. Our study suggests that both in person and virtual interpreters can be effective in providing care for NELP patients, especially for chronic disease management in the context of a primary care relationship. It also highlights the importance of pursuing additional qualitative and mixed method studies to better understand the benefits of various interpreter formats across different visit types.
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    Protective Factors Among Pregnant and Parenting Youth Experiencing Homelessness in Shelter: A Qualitative Exploratory Study
    (Adversity and Resilience Science, 2024-02-01) So, Marvin; Kaja, Sarah; Brar, Pooja; Mehus, Christopher; Woodlee, Christina; Gewirtz O'Brien, Janna
    Pregnant and parenting youth experiencing homelessness (PPYEH) face considerable health and socioeconomic challenges. Although protective factors, such as positive adult relationships, are key elements for healthy development throughout adolescence and young adulthood, they remain less understood among PPYEH. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 11 female participants (ages 15–20) in a shelter-based health program, we conducted a qualitative analysis to explore protective factors among PPYEH. Guided by a theory-informed codebook, we identified individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community-level factors that supported the health of PPYEH. Individual factors included youths’ future orientation, sexual health and contraceptive knowledge, understanding/prioritization of personal and child health, self-efficacy and engagement in their parent role, and ability to navigate complex systems. Interpersonal factors included meaningful parent–child relationships and multidimensional support from family and school. Organizational factors included instrumental support from school and shelter, shelter rules and policies, and the benefit of the shelter compared to previous housing circumstances. Community factors included having access to and satisfaction with primary care, easy access to sexual and reproductive healthcare, and a network of professional supports. Societal-level protective factors were not identified. Findings demonstrate the value of understanding and enhancing protective factors within ongoing clinical, educational, and policy efforts to support PPYEH.
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    Music Students and Library Collections after Pandemic Closures: An Examination of Format Preferences and Reported Usage
    (College & Research Libraries, 2025-07) Abbazio, Jessica M.; Clark, Joe C.; Sauceda, Jonathan
    This study details university music students’ required resources, format preferences, and information-seeking behaviors after the campus shutdowns brought about by COVID-19. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the investigation was undertaken at three large US universities in fall 2022. Results revealed that music students continue to use and value library resources, a sentiment that rose with class standing. Longitudinal comparisons with 2012 and 2017 studies reveal that the dramatic shift towards digital resources seen between 2012 and 2017 has not continued and that format preferences are largely unchanged from 2017. Students reported heavy reliance on libraries for books, scores, and articles, while audio and video content were likely to come from freemium resources like YouTube or other streaming sites.
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    Emotional Self-efficacy Scale: A Categorical Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Different Numbers of Response Categories
    (American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, 2024) Abulela, Mohammed, A. A.
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    Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate Modified Schema-Based Instruction in General Education Classrooms
    (Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 2024) Bowman, Jessica A; McDonnell, John; Karp, Karen; Coleman, Olivia F; Clifton, Carrie; Aiono Conradi, Lyndsey; Ryan, Joanna; Farrell, Michael
    In this convergent mixed methods design study, single subject and qualitative data were collected concurrently to provide an in-depth picture of the impact of a modified schema-based instructional intervention. The intervention was delivered using instructional trials embedded across general education math lessons and a modified concrete-semiconcrete-abstract instructional sequence (CSA). This study investigated the impact of the intervention on the word problem solving, strategy use, and concept acquisition of three students with extensive support needs (ESN). The paraprofessional-delivered intervention was implemented in elementary general education mathematics classrooms using embedded instruction and focused on teaching students to solve addition and subtraction word problems. Single-subject data indicated that all three students learned to solve word problems given concrete materials but needed more time to master the use of semiconcrete supports. Qualitative data indicated that students used taught and untaught strategies to solve word problems, and mastered addition word problems before subtraction when they were taught simultaneously. Data were integrated in narrative format to explore how strategy use and concept acquisition related to student word problem-solving performance. Limitations and implications for research are discussed.
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    Managing Scholarly Outputs in a Proprietary Platform: Exploring the Implications of Esri Story Maps for Spatial Digital Humanities Preservation (Accepted Manuscript)
    (Journal of Map and Geography Libraries, 2024-04) Kernik, Melinda L
    Spatial digital humanities projects often struggle with sustainability and preservation. Interactive, engaging websites require consistent maintenance to function well. As a result, projects rise and fall with grant cycles while technical staff face an ever-increasing portfolio of projects to maintain. For the past decade, Esri's StoryMaps platform has offered a way to combine maps, text, images, and other multimedia with relatively little technical overhead for the end user. This has had substantial influence on spatial digital humanities, expanding opportunities for a wide range of scholars and organizations to share archival research publicly. The challenge of preserving this work looms large, however, as the retirement date for the "classic" version of the platform approaches. Based on an effort at the University of Minnesota to contact authors for hundreds of public-facing story maps, this paper reflects on the difficulty of managing scholarly outputs in a system not primarily designed for that purpose and of representing web-based work within the library record. More broadly it asks, what does it mean for spatial digital humanities that so much scholarship is hosted and organized within one proprietary platform?
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    Why Do Some States Intervene in Humanitarian Crises and Not Others? Lessons From Rwanda and Bosnia
    (2024) Mikal, Maeve Li G
    This paper discusses how states choose to intervene in mass violence, and what underlying biases could affect that decision. Using the Rwandan genocide of 1994, and the Bosnian Crisis of 1992-1995, I discuss potential reasons why the international community engaged so heavily in Bosnia, and provided minimal support in Rwanda, despite both conflicts being equally brutal. I discuss how states are reluctant to intervene in highly politicized and complex conflicts out of concern for the impacts on their international reputations and their dynamics with future conflicts. I then examine state proximity to conflict, and the potential that states may be concerned with their proximity to conflict impacting their own troops. Finally, I critically analyze if states may be more willing to intervene if a conflict is highly publicized, and the pressures of the media on state intervention. Using evidence from scholarship in the field of political science and international relations, the paper finds that media and information play a significant role in how states choose to intervene, and is a significant player in the decision to engage in a conflict.
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    From Access to Achievement: Engaging and Empowering Students on the Path to Research and Graduate School
    (2024-03) Cory, Kayla; Albecker, Anthony
    The Gopher Grad Initiative (GGI), created by CEHD’s TRIO McNair Scholars Program, is a coalition of professionals and University resources. GGI conducts workshops tailored to the needs of first-generation, Pell-eligible, and traditionally overlooked students, aiming to expose them to research engagement and graduate school opportunities. GGI transforms structures and systems to engage students in research and prepare them for graduate school. This initiative reimagines higher education partnerships to demystify the graduate school process, dismantle hidden curricula, and support students' post-baccalaureate pursuits. GGI is accessible to college students across the state participating in TRIO-like programs committed to maintaining an open pipeline to undergraduate research opportunities and graduate school. This poster will share the unique challenges and opportunities GGI has addressed over the past four years, along with a projected path for the future.
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    Hail Netting for Apples: Study Results (2021-2022)
    (2024) Nelson, Sally, GA; DiGiacomo, Gigi; Klodd, Annie; Jacobson, John; Wimmer, Madeline; Hutchison, William, H
    Apple is one of the most popular fruit crops grown in Minnesota and maintains high consumer demand for fresh fruit sales and agritourism at orchards around the state. Apple trees grown on a high-density trellis system have proven to be an economical production option for growers. In this system, growers typically rely on insecticides to minimize the risk of pest-related fruit losses. This article highlights the results of a study examining the impacts of drape-style hail netting on insect pests, beneficial insects, fruit quality, and yield. In addition, the economic benefits of hail netting for insect pest management are summarized.
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    Dopaminergic signaling in the spinal cord suppresses locomotion in larval zebrafish development
    (2024-03) Walters, Deborah, L
    The significance of dopamine (DA) and its multifaceted role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system has undergone extensive investigation. The research focus of my project centers on dopamine’s role in modulating spinal locomotor circuits in larvae zebrafish. Previous research from our lab showed that larval zebrafish swimming patterns change during development from long episodes durations at 3 days post fertilization (dpf) to short episode durations at 4 dpf and coincides with gross to fine motor control. Dopamine receptor D4 signaling in the spinal cord is necessary in facilitating this switch, likely by modulating dopamine signaling and regulating the activity of motor neurons involved in generating locomotor patterns. We demonstrated that antagonism of D4R signaling starting at 3 dpf prevents the switch from long to short episode durations, while D4R antagonism at 4 dpf reverses the switch from short to long episode durations. We hypothesized that 3 dpf larvae possess sufficient dopaminergic receptors in the spinal cord to bind to DA, enabling the advancement of the developmental switch from immature, long swim patterns to a mature state resembling 4 dpf larvae by exposing larvae at 3 dpf to exogenous DA. To test this, we used transgenic zebrafish that expressed Channelrhodopsin (ChR) in glutamatergic neurons within the spinal cord, allowing for the activation of these neurons using blue-light stimulation. Fictive swimming was measured using peripheral nerve recordings in different conditions, of a baseline (t0), treatment of dopamine (t1), and washout (saline) (t2). Control (untreated) preparations exhibited no significant changes between conditions, indicating that repeated optogenetic stimulation by itself did not induce notable changes in locomotor activity. Dopamine application significantly decreased the number of bursts and episode duration during optogenetic stimulation locomotor activity without affecting number of episodes, burst duration, or inter-burst intervals. These results suggest that exogenous DA affected swim patterns in 3 dpf larvae to resemble their 5 dpf counterparts, indicating a sufficient expression level of dopamine receptors in spinal locomotor networks of 3 dpf larvae to prematurely advance the developmental switch. These results could elucidate how neurodegenerative and motor disorders develop and progress, and shed light on the mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury. These findings could potentially inform translational medical approaches creating novel therapeutic interventions for treating neurodegenerative diseases.
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    Preserving Podcasts in Institutional Repositories
    (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2023) Collins, Valerie M.; Moore, Erik A.
    This chapter introduces the University of Minnesota Archives’ efforts to locate and ingest University of Minnesota podcasts into the institutional repository, the University Digital Conservancy (UDC). The inclusion of podcast media in IRs rethinks traditional formats in repositories by focusing on non-text-based content. This undertaking extends the IR’s reach to local creators and new contributors at the institution while broadening its reach beyond an academic audience. By looking past traditional IR scholarly content to include podcasts produced by university departments, institutional repositories can also capture a particular record of the institution that might otherwise be lost: the sound of the university engaged in its mission of research, teaching, and outreach.
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    Mobile Health Assessment of Traumatic Dental Injuries Using Smartphone Acquired Photographs: A Multicenter Diagnostic Accuracy Study
    (Telemedicine and e-Health, 2024) Huang, Boyen; Estai, Mohamed; Pungchanchaikul, Patimaporn; Quick, Karin; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Fashingbauer, Emily; Askar, Abdirahim; Wang, Josiah; Diefalla, Fatma; Shenouda, Margaret; Seyffer, Danae; Louie, Jeffrey P
    Background: Mobile health (mHealth) has an emerging potential for remote assessment of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and support of emergency care. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of TDI detection from smartphone-acquired photographs. Methods: The upper and lower anterior teeth of 153 individuals aged ≥ 6 years were photographed using a smartphone camera app. The photos of 148 eligible participants were reviewed independently by a dental specialist, two general dentists, and two dental therapists, using predetermined TDI classification and criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and inter-rater reliability were estimated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the photographic method relative to the reference standard established by the dental specialist. Results: Of the 1,870 teeth screened, one-third showed TDI; and one-seventh of the participants had primary or mixed dentitions. Compared between the specialist’s reference standard and four dental professionals’ reviews, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for TDI versus non-TDI was 59-95% and 47-93%, respectively, with better performance for urgent types of TDI (78-89% and 99-100%, separately). The diagnostic consistency was also better for the primary/mixed dentitions than the permanent dentition. Conclusion: This study suggested a valid mHealth practice for remote assessment of TDI. A better diagnostic performance in the detection of urgent types of TDI and examination of the primary/mixed dentitions was also reported. Future directions include professional development activities involving dental photography and photographic assessment, incorporation of a machine learning technology to aid photographic reviews, and randomized controlled trials in multiple clinical settings.
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    Development of a policy on ingestion of human subjects datasets: An institutional assessment and large-scale repository scan
    (Medical Library Association Conference, 2020) Hunt, Shanda; Collins, Valerie; Hofelich Mohr, Alicia
    Background: The Data Repository for the University of Minnesota (DRUM) is a publicly available collection of digital research data generated by University of Minnesota researchers, students, and staff. Within DRUM, there are 43 datasets with human subjects data. A human subject is a living individual about whom a researcher obtains, uses, studies, analyzes, or generates information. Datasets published in DRUM are openly available, broadly disseminated, and downloadable without restriction. Because of the sensitive nature of human subjects data, and the potential issues with publishing such data in a publicly accessible repository, we assess all human subjects data before acceptance. Ongoing conversations with researchers and other campus units regarding human subjects data in DRUM have brought to light the need for an analysis of our own processes as well as a scan of other repositories’ practices and policies for the purpose of formalizing a human subjects policy for DRUM. Description: We analyzed DRUM’s accepted and rejected human subjects datasets since 2013, in order to evaluate DRUM’s past and current practices regarding human subjects data, the ethical considerations we have weighed, and the actions we have taken in regards to these datasets. This presentation will provide specific examples of rejected datasets and the recommendations that curators made to researchers, and also detail the ethical considerations of publishing de-identified human subjects data when the study participants have not been notified. DRUM’s ongoing efforts to educate and establish campus-wide understanding of the issues led to the second aim of this study: we conducted a scan of 105 repositories that ingest human subjects data and analyzed 1) language related to participant consent on the website and 2) language related to participant consent in the deposit agreement. Finally, the presentation will detail the process of formulating a formal DRUM policy on human subjects dataset submissions based on the results of the analyses. Conclusion: We’ll detail the outcome of the human subjects policy inventory and any progress made as a result of ongoing outreach efforts by DRUM curators at the University of Minnesota. We'll also discuss next steps in getting the new DRUM human subjects policy approved.