Applied Psychological Measurement, Volume 01, 1977

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    Choice reaction time: What role in ability measurement?
    (1977) Lunneborg, Clifford E.
    Three studies are described in which choice reaction time (RT) was related to such psychometric ability measures as verbal comprehension, numerical reasoning, hidden figures, and progressive matrices tests. Although fairly consistent negative correlations were found between these tests and choice RT when high school samples were used, differences from study to study highlight the need to develop more reliable measures for cognitive laboratory procedures and to study these in populations that are more broadly representative of human cognitive power.
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    Optimal cutting scores using a linear loss function
    (1977) Van der Linden, Wim J.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.
    The situation is considered in which a total score on a test is used for classifying examinees into two categories: "accepted (with scores above a cutting score on the test) and "not accepted" (with scores below the cutting score). A value on the latent variable is fixed in advance; examinees above this value are "suitable" and those below are "not suitable." Using a linear loss function, a procedure is described for computing a cutting score that minimizes the risk for the decision rule. The procedure is demonstrated with a criterion-referenced achievement test of elementary statistics administered to 167 students.
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    Applicability of the Rasch model with varying item discriminations
    (1977) Dinero, Thomas E.; Haertel, Edward
    Among the varieties of logistic models, those attributed to Birnbaum (involving the parameters of item discrimination, item difficulty, and person ability) and Rasch (involving only item difficulty and person ability) have received attention. The present research simulated the responses of 75 subjects responding to 30 items under the Birnbaum model and then attempted a fit to the data using the Rasch model. When item discriminations varied from a variance of .05 to .25 within distributions of different form (uniform, normal, and positively skewed), the poorest overall fit appeared within the uniform distribution. For each distribution there was only a slight increase in the lack of fit as the variances increased.
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    The relationship between the perceived risk and attractiveness of gambles: A multidimensional analysis
    (1977) Nygren, Thomas E.
    Judgments of perceived risk and attractiveness for a set of 50 two-outcome gambles were obtained from 39 college students. The data were used to test various ordinal properties of the gambles implied by Pollatsek and Tversky’s theory of risk and Coombs’ Portfolio theory. In addition, the MDPREF multidimensional scaling procedure was used (1) to test the assumption that gambles are perceived and evaluated as multidimensional stimuli; (2) to determine the characteristics of gambles affecting perceived risk and attractiveness; (3) to assess the extent of individual differences in perception of gambles; and (4) to test the implication of Portfolio theory that attractiveness is a function of perceived risk and expected value. The results supported the multidimensional nature of gambles and the implications of Portfolio theory. In the MDPREF analyses large individual differences were found in perceived risk and attractiveness of gambles. Potential uses of multidimensional scaling techniques in further research on individual differences in gambling behavior are proposed and discussed.
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    Relative utility of computerized versus paper-and-pencil tests for predicting job performance
    (1977) Cory, Charles H.
    This article, the second of two, presents predictive validity data for on-job performance for a set of computerized Graphic and Interactive Processing (GRIP) tests in conjunction with data for both experimental paper-and-pencil and operational tests. Validity coefficients for job element and global criteria are reported for four different jobs. Experimental variables substantially enhanced the predictive accuracy of the operational battery for Sonar Technicians. Most experimental tests with significant validities were computer-administered. The GRIP tests were more useful than paper-and-pencil tests for identifying personnel skilled in Interpreting Visual Displays, Adjusting Equipment, and Working Under Distractions. They were useful supplements to paper-and-pencil tests for identifying skill in four additional job elements.
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    Effects of computerized administration on scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    (1977) Biskin, Bruce H.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.
    This study investigated the effects of administering a personality inventory by computer. Both the results of the initial study and a replication suggest that significant differences exist between paper-pencil and computer administrations of the MMPI on the cannot say (?) scale and scale 6 (Paranoia). However, there appears to be no set of items that would account for these scale differences. Differences on the ? scale were explained in terms of the different methods used to omit items in each condition. Differences on scale 6 were small, and the clinical significance of that difference needs to be investigated further. Implications for future research on computer-administered personality instruments are discussed.
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    Psychologist versus client perspectives in the assessment of psychopathology
    (1977) Bolton, Brian
    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI) and the Psychiatric Status Schedule (PSS) were administered to two samples of clients who were participating in large-scale investigations of the rehabilitation counseling process (N = 108) and private psychotherapy (N = 113). The MMPI summarized the clients’ subjective views of their emotional status while the PSS provided an assessment that had been filtered through the psychologists’ perspectives. Statistical analyses of the resulting multivariable-multimethod matrix revealed a substantial convergence of client and psychologist perspectives. The assessment of depression was the symptom area in which the greatest agreement occurred (r’s of .60 and .70); canonical correlations which used all MMPI and PSS scales approached the theoretical maximum values (Rc’s of .75 and .84). Further analyses suggested that the PSS provides a broader assessment of psychopathology than does the MMPI by summarizing unique diagnostic information. While an average of 40% of the variance in the MMPI sets was predictable from the PSS, only 16% of the PSS variance was predictable from the MMPI.
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    A multitrait-multirater analysis of a behaviorally-anchored rating scale for sales personnel
    (1977) Ivancevich, John M.
    Behaviorally-anchored rating scales (BARS) have grown in popularity among researchers and practitioners. There have been reports and studies of BARS being used to evaluate the performance of nurses, engineers, grocery clerks, managers, and teachers. An important issue in using BARS concerns the validity of the instrument. This study of the development and validity evaluation by the multitrait-multirater approach of a BARS for sales personnel suggests (1) moderate convergent validity and (2) little or no discriminant validity.
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    An application of the continuous response level model to personality measurement
    (1977) Bejar, Isaac I.
    This paper reports an application of Samejima’s latent trait model for continuous responses. A brief review of latent trait theory is presented, including an elaboration of the theory for test responses other than dichotomous responses, in order to put the continuous model in perspective. The model is then applied using the Impulsivity and Harmavoidance scales of Jackson’s Personality Research Form. Special attention is given to the requirement that the model be invariant across populations and sex groups. Results showed that responses from males fit the model better than those from females, especially for the Harmavoidance scale. The practical and theoretical implications of the study are discussed.
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    A replication study of item selection for the Bem Sex Role Inventory
    (1977) Edwards, Allen L.; Ashworth, Clark D.
    An attempt was made to replicate the selection of items for the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). The 20 masculine, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral items of the BSRI were rated for social desirability "in an American male" and "in an American female" by male and female judges. The BSRI item-selection criterion-each item being rated by both male and female judges as significantly more desirable in a male than in a female (masculine items) or significantly more desirable in a female than in a male (feminine items)-was met by only two items: masculine feminine. For a considerable number of other items, differences between mean desirability ratings for a male and for a female were in a direction opposite to that predicted. Correlations between the mean ratings of male and female judges when rating items for the same sex were quite high, consistent with previous research.
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    Empirical item keying versus a rational approach to analyzing a psychological climate questionnaire
    (1977) Hornick, Christopher W.; James, Lawrence R .; Jones, Allan P.
    The present study compared two approaches to scoring a Psychological Climate Questionnaire-an empirical keying of items using item analysis and a rational approach which focused on identifying the underlying constructs measured by the questionnaire. The approaches were compared with respect to prediction of performance criteria and the ability to ascertain the theoretical underpinnings of the instrument. Questionnaires were completed by 398 male firemen in a large metropolitan area. Results demonstrated that a summation of item scores to reflect carefully designed a priori constructs did not necessarily result in weaker prediction of performance criteria. Similarities of the present study with previous work are discussed.
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    Test-free person measurement with the Rasch simple logistic model
    (1977) Tinsley, Howard E.; Dawis, Rene V.
    This research investigated the use of the Rasch simple logistic model in obtaining test-free ability estimates. Two tests each of word, picture, symbol, and number analogies were administered to college and high school students. Differences between scores on each pair of tests were analyzed to determine whether the ability estimates were independent of the tests employed. The results indicate that raw-score ability estimates are influenced by the difficulty of the items used in measurement but that Rasch ability estimates are relatively independent of the difficulty of these items. The need is discussed for additional research in which an individualized item-presentation procedure is used with the Rasch model.
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    Person reliability
    (1977) Lumsden, James
    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves.
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    Information-processing on intelligence test items: Some response components
    (1977) Whitely, Susan E.
    The reorientation of experimental psychology from studying performance to studying cognitive processes has created a new potential for understanding ability tests in terms of the nature of the cognitive events which contribute to individual differences in solving the test items. The results from the present study suggest the feasibility of explaining individual differences in performance on a prototypic intelligence test item-verbal analogies- from the success and efficiency of processing information on hypothesized component events. The data revealed that at least three types of processing events are needed to describe individual differences in the component task durations, but that probably only one factor is needed to describe accuracy in completing the components. More critically, both the accuracy and duration of the component tasks were significantly related to solving psychometric analogies. The results are discussed with respect to the nature of successful performance on analogy test items and the need for more complex models to fully account for individual differences in test performance.
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    Some item analysis and test theory for a system of computer-assisted test construction for individualized instruction
    (1977) Lord, Frederic M.
    Under given conditions, conventional testing and computer-generated repeatable testing (CGRT) are equally effective for estimating examinee ability; CGRT is more effective than conventional testing for estimating the mean ability level of a group; and CGRT is less effective for estimating ability differences among individuals. These conclusions are drawn from domain-referenced test theory as distinguished from norm-referenced test theory.
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    Scoring field dependence: A methodological analysis of five rod-and-frame scoring systems
    (1977) McGarvey, Bill; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Miller, Norman
    The most consistently used scoring system for the rod-and-frame task has been the total (or average) number of degrees in error from the true vertical, regardless of the initial or final directions of the rod and frame. Since a logical case can be made for at least four alternative scoring systems, a thorough comparison of all five systems seemed appropriate. Comparisons consisted of: (1) an internal consistency/reliability analysis, with split-half and test-retest reliabilities and a multitrait-multimethod matrix analysis of each scoring system, chair, frame, and man position; (2) a repeated measures ANOVA, with ethnic group, sex, and grade as between factors and chair, frame, and man positions as within factors; and (3) correlations of each scoring system with a selected set of external criteria. Results suggest strong support for use of the natural logarithm of the sum of absolute errors as the preferred scoring system, that concern with the confounding of field dependence and the E effect is largely unwarranted, and that all but one of the scoring systems perform adequately.
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    Development of a self-report inventory for assessing individual differences in learning processes
    (1977) Schmeck, Ronald R.; Ribich, Fred; Ramanaiah, Nerella V.
    Five studies are presented-all related to the development and application of a self-report inventory for measuring individual differences in learning processes. Factor analysis of items derived by translating laboratory learning processes into the context of academic study yielded four scales: Synthesis-Analysis, Study Methods, Fact Retention, and Elaborative Processing. There were no sex differences, and the scales demonstrated acceptable reliabilities. The Synthesis-Analysis and Elaborative Processing scales both assess aspects of information processing (including depth of processing), but Synthesis-Analysis assesses organizational processes, while Elaborative Processing deals with active, elaborative approaches to encoding. These two scales were positively related to performance under incidental learning instructions in both a lecture-learning and traditional verbal-learning study. Study Methods assessed adherence to systematic, traditional study techniques. This scale was positively related to performance in the intentional condition of the verbal learning study. The Fact Retention scale assessed the propensity to retain detailed, factual information. It was positively related to performance in the incidental condition of the verbal-learning but not the lecture-learning study. Future research and applications are discussed.
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    Intransivity on paired-comparisons instruments: The relationship of the total circular triad score to stimulus circular triads
    (1977) Hendel, Darwin D.
    Intransitivity associated with the method of paired comparisons for scaling stimulus objects has been hypothesized in previous research to relate to the psychological and/or physical distance between stimulus objects. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether paired-comparisons intransitivity is a function of intransitivity associated with specific stimulus objects rather than a function of the entire set of stimulus objects. Three 190-item, paired-comparisons instruments with diverse content (i.e., vocational needs, mate preferences, and food preferences) were designed to examine the relationship between Stimulus Circular Triads and the Total Circular Triad score and were administered to 276 high school and 358 college students. Results of univariate correlational analyses and multiple-regression techniques suggested that paired-comparisons intransitivity relates to individual differences variables associated with the respondent, although there were differences in the absolute level of intransitivity associated with each of the three sets of stimuli.
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    The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population
    (1977) Radloff, Lenore Sawyer
    The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test-retest repeatability. Validity was established by patterns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of depression.
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    Discriminant Analysis with Categorical Data
    (1977) Overall, John E.; Woodward, J. Arthur
    A method for studying relationships among groups in terms of categorical data patterns is described. The procedure yields a dimensional representation of configural relationships among multiple groups and a quantitative scaling of categorical data patterns for use in subsequent assignment of new individuals to the groups. Two examples are used to illustrate potential of the method. In the first, profile data that were previously analyzed by metric multiple discriminant function analysis are reanalyzed by the nonmetric categorical data pattern technique with highly similar results. The second example examines relationships among psychiatric syndrome groups in terms of similarities in patterns of categorical background variables. Results appear consistent with other available information concerning the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders.