Erin Malone

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    Comparison of Veterinary Student Self-Perception of Comfort and Abilities in Independent Learning with Quality of Online/ Virtual Course and Student Performance
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2023) Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Lashbaugh, Kristy D; Rendahl, Aaron K; Malone, Erin D; Larsen, Roxanne J; Burton, Erin N; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J
    Background: Students expressed concern about having been forced to move toward more online or virtual learning starting in March 2020 with the coronavirus disease pandemic. Our hypotheses were the following: if a course is well designed, success in the course is not dependent on student comfort level. If a course is not well designed, student comfort level is a significant factor, and those students who are more comfortable with independent learning may outperform students who are less comfortable in courses offered virtually. Materials and Methods: Student performance, as demonstrated by examination scores, was compared with their comfort as independent learners and with the quality of online/virtual course offerings. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model. Results: Student performance was directly associated with comfort level, with those students who were less comfortable performing less well. Student discomfort with independent learning of online/virtual coursework could not be mitigated by increasing course quality in this study. Conclusions: Students may benefit from understanding what about independent learning makes them uncomfortable and directly addressing it. Instructors can do much to improve the learning experience in online courses by following published best practices. It may well be that many of the reported negatives of online learning will ease with time as students and instructors become more accustomed to independent learning paradigms.
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    Innovative Assessments for Preclinical Competencies in a Veterinary Surgery Course: How Would You Dehorn a Unicorn?
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2023) Malone, Erin
    This report describes an innovative final examination structure that has allowed students to demonstrate several competencies as part of a veterinary surgery course, including collaboration, communication, and scholarship. The assessment includes two exams: one assessing individual student knowledge and the other a group case-based examination. The latter permits not only assessment of knowledge application but also group function, resource finding and utilization, and either written or verbal communication skills. A provided instructor key and group reflection make grading efficient. External audiences encourage practice in communication skills, while unusual patients facilitate full group involvement. The assessment format aligns with course goals, has similar organization time compared to standard final exams, and requires minimal grading effort. We feel this model could be readily extended to other facets of veterinary medicine as well as to other health professions.
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    Creating a teaching technician team for support of veterinary student training laboratories
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2022-09-09) Malone, Erin D; Brown, Abby L
    Veterinary technicians play valuable roles in most veterinary colleges and have particular strengths in coaching new learners. We moved to a teaching technician ‘float team’ model to provide teaching support to core pre-clinical laboratories in our DVM (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine) curriculum. The teaching technician team model has enabled us to better utilize staff skill sets and training, created efficiencies and expanded support provided to core laboratory courses, provided skill development and advancement opportunities for team members, and improved our ability to recognize and mentor our teaching staff. This model also allowed us to effectively adjust to the rapidly changing structure and increased numbers of laboratories brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic without increasing numbers of staff involved in laboratory teaching.
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    COVID Bedfellows: Combining Clinical Skills and Anatomy Laboratories in the DVM Curriculum
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2021) Malone, Erin D; Brown, Abby L; Spence, Susan J
    Background: Prior to the fall of 2020, clinical skills and anatomy were considered separate courses with minimal overlap other than being offered to the same cohort of students. We had included clinical skills practice in anatomy labs on an intermittent and variable basis. Many of the skills were included only if time and faculty or staff availability permitted. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic made us think differently, particularly as the anatomy space was one of our largest rooms. Methods: Anatomy and clinical skills shared space and content during the 2020–2021 school year in an effort to meet physical distancing and other biosafety requirements required by the state and University. Results: Students were maintained in a single space and were engaged for a longer period of time, making their commute and biosafety steps worthwhile while simultaneously opening up other spaces for distanced teaching needs. The goal of one skill/day for motor skill learning was maintained despite a challenging laboratory teaching schedule. Certified veterinary technicians taught both the anatomy and the skills portion, showcasing the value of their training and freeing faculty for other responsibilities. Conclusion: This teaching and learning combination led to an enhanced understanding of procedurerelated anatomy; direct anatomy application to veterinary work; opportunities for recall, transfer, and supervised practice; and optimized staff and space utilization.
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    The efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream (Aldara) in the treatment of aural plaque in horses: a pilot open-label clinical trial
    (Veterinary Dermatology, 2010) Torres, Sheila MF; Malone, Erin D; White, Stephen D; Koch, Sandra N; Watson, Johanna L
    Aural plaques affect at least 22% of horses and can be asymptomatic or cause ear sensitivity. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy studies have shown a strong association between aural plaques and papilloma virus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream, an immune response modifier with potent antiviral activity, in the treatment of equine aural plaques. Twenty-one horses were enrolled and 16 completed the study. Imiquimod 5% cream was applied three times a week, every other week. When both ears were affected only the worst affected ear was treated. Adverse effects in all horses included marked local inflammation, exudation and thick crust formation at the site of treatment and the adjacent skin. Removal of the crust before treatment was painful and required sedation in most horses. Complete resolution of lesions was noted in all horses immediately post-treatment and the long-term resolution rate was 87.5%. Duration of therapy ranged from 1.5 to 8 months (median: 2.9 mean: 3.5). All horses were followed-up for 12–22 months after treatment was discontinued and only two horses had a recurrence of lesions. Clinical signs related to the aural plaques prior to treatment were reported in 11 of 16 (68.8%) horses and included resistance to touching the ears and bridling. Complete resolution of these signs was reported by the owners in all of the horses followedup for at least 12 months. In conclusion, the topical application of imiquimod 5% cream is an efficacious treatment for aural plaques in horses.
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    Identification of Student Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Training Choices to Drive Targeted Admissions in Veterinary Medicine
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2020) Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Malone, Erin; Rendahl, Aaron
    Background: There is an identified need for practicing veterinarians with a focus on food animal work in the United States. Students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine track by species (food animal, equine, mixed, and small animal) or discipline (research) in the latter part of their training. Identification of life experiences that are associated with students choosing the food animal track would permit the college to better target admissions to meet societal needs. Aims and Objectives: To identify lifestyle characteristics and activities associated with choice of the food animal track and to evaluate how student choice of track varies across their training. Materials and Methods: Students from three consecutive classes were surveyed to identify factors influencing track choice. Fisher’s test was used to compare data and Clopper–Pearson “exact” confidence intervals computed. Results: Students who declared interest in the 1st year in small animal, equine, or food animal as a track were highly likely to choose that at their final track later in the curriculum. Eightyfive percent of students in a food animalfocused early admission track chose the food animal track; the remainder chose the mixed track with cattle as one of their species of interest. Students were more likely to choose the food animal track if their undergraduate major was animal science, if they grew up in a rural area, lived on a farm, were in 4H or were in Future Farmers of America, or had shown or worked horses or cattle, or shadowed a large animal veterinarian. Students valued mentoring from within the college and from outside veterinarians. Conclusions: Knowledge of how students choose their tracks will permit the college better to promote admissions of students who are more likely to track food animal and to plan for adequate clinical year experiences for all students.
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    Evidence-Based Clinical Skills Teaching and Learning: What Do We Really Know?
    (Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 2019) Malone, Erin
    The recent programmatic focus on skills development in veterinary medicine means that many programs are devoting increased time to formal clinical skills teaching. This expansion makes it essential that we use the time as effectively as possible. This review examines current practices and veterinary training principles using the broader lens. In many areas, current practices may be hindering learning. Proposed practices include using videos and discussions for pre-laboratory training, focusing on a single complex skill at a time, using more near-peer instructors rather than faculty, including assessments in each teaching or practice session, and encouraging supervised distributed practice by incorporating practice sessions into the formal curriculum. Ensuring mastery of a few core skills rather than exposure to many may be the new goal. Further research is urgently needed on block versus spiral curricula, optimum instructor-to-student ratios, learning and practice schedules, hours required for proficiency, and the benefits of exercise on motor skills learning.
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    Monitoring the Curriculum through the Student Perspective
    (Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 2020) Malone, Erin D; Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Rendahl, Aaron; Molgaard, Laura K
    Student input was deliberately included as part of the curriculum implementation and assessment plan at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. The new curriculum included design features to encourage deeper learning such as a spiral curriculum with cross-course integration, increased open time, and more active learning. Student well-being was seen as a simultaneous need. To gather overall perceptions of workload and well-being, student volunteers from each cohort were surveyed weekly starting in 2013. Survey questions asked about out-of-class work time, level of integration, extracurricular activities, student well-being habits, paid employment, and other factors. Survey questions were combined with course data to get a full picture of week quality, total course work time, extracurricular activities, and the effects of integration. Many of our hypotheses about curricular and extracurricular impacts on week quality were disproven. Week quality was most positively affected by student factors of sleep and exercise, whereas the curricular factors of out-of-class work time, total course work time, and examination hours had the strongest negative effects. A surprising finding was that open time, in-class hours, and paid employment hours had a minimal effect on week quality. Students identified excessively heavy semesters and uneven semester workloads that resulted in early revisions to the new curriculum. Student feedback provided a view of the curriculum that was not otherwise available and resulted in early and significant impacts on the new curriculum, and they provided insight into whether planned changes had occurred and how effective various factors were in reaching the curricular goals.
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    Types of crooked legs in foals
    (University of Minnesota Extension, 2018) Malone, Erin
    Generally, leg deformities in foals have a good outcome if you start treatment early. If you leave moderate to severe cases untreated, crippling problems will occur as the foal matures. Pain associated with crippling problems make these horse unrideable.
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    Colic in your horse
    (University of Minnesota Extension, 2018) Malone, Erin
    Colic indicates a painful problem in your horse’s abdomen. Because colic is often unpredictable and frequently unpreventable, it’s a common concern for horse owners. Horses are naturally prone to colic. Fortunately, over 80 percent of colic types respond well to treatment on the farm.
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    Using a model board examination and a case study assessing clinical reasoning to evaluate curricular change
    (Education in the Health Professions, 2018) Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Rendahl, Aaron; Molgaard, Laura; Malone, Erin
    Background: This study compared student ability to integrate basic science and clinical information before and after implementing a curriculum revision that introduced a problem-oriented case approach as required coursework. Materials and Methods: Student knowledge and competence were assessed just before entry into clinical training by completion of 100 multiple-choice questions mirroring the breadth and type of questions on the national licensing examination (Part I) and by completion of 10 cases to discern clinical decision-making (Part II). Scores from students from the classes of 2015 and 2016 (previous curriculum) were compared to those from students from the classes of 2017 and 2018 (current curriculum). Results: Part I scores were not significantly different between any classes in the previous and current curriculum. Part II scores for 3rd-year students in the current curriculum were higher than those for comparable students in the past 2 years of the previous curriculum. Mean scores for the class of 2016, the last year of the previous curriculum, were significantly lower than all other classes. Conclusion: Students benefit from measured and repetitive practice in clinical reasoning.
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    Student american veterinary medical association duty hours guidelines
    (Education in the Health Profession, 2019) Duliepre, Stéphie-Anne C; Seshadri, Ashika; Neuser, Sarah L; McFarland, Alexander; Gray, Meggan M; Malone, Erin; Nafe, Laura; Hall, Derrick
    At the 2011 Student American Veterinary Medical Association (SAVMA) Symposium, the SAVMA House of Delegates officially endorsed its Duty Hours Guidelines. The purpose of the guidelines was to provide guidance to veterinary students at all SAVMA Chapters on appropriate duty hours during clinical rotations. A need to revisit the duty hour guidelines arose in 2018 as veterinary students throughout the United States expressed concerns with the applicability of some guidelines in their clinical years. To reflect the needs of all SAVMA Chapters, the guidelines were revised in light of current veterinary medical trends. Feedback was solicited from students and faculty at all 34 SAVMA Chapters with clinical programs via surveys and in person meetings. A total of 19 Chapters provided input that highlighted areas for improvement. Thus, SAVMA wishes to make clear the needs of veterinary students on their clinical rotations and provide revised duty hours guidelines. Although SAVMA does not have the regulatory authority to enforce compliance, the organization strongly encourages all AVMA-accredited institutions to both embrace and comply with the newly revised and recommended guidelines.
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    Curriculum Review and Revision at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine
    (Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 2017) Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Molgaard, Laura K; Malone, Erin
    Curriculum review is an essential part of ongoing curriculum development, and is a mandate of the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accrediting body of all North American schools and colleges of veterinary medicine. This article describes the steps in curriculum review undertaken by the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine (UMN CVM) in response to this mandate from the COE and to a recommendation from a recent collegiate review that was part of a larger university-level strategic planning effort. The challenges of reviewing and revising the curriculum within a short time frame were met by appointing a dedicated curriculum review board and by engaging students and faculty groups, both as focus groups and as specific faculty work sections within disciplines. Faculty voting on the process was very valuable as it permitted the curriculum review board and faculty groups to move ahead knowing there was a process in place for reassessment if most faculty did not agree with recommendations. Consistent support from the dean of the college and other administrators was vital in helping maintain momentum for curriculum review.
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    Large Animal Urinary Surgery TBL module
    (TBLC, 2014) Malone, Erin
    Learning goals for this TBL unit appropriate diagnostic tests for large animal urogenital disorders, particularly rupturedbladders, umbilical infections and urolithiasis 2.diagnose umbilical infections, uroabdomen, and urinary blockages based upon signalment anddiagnostic test results 2.recommend treatment plans for large animal urogenital disorders, particularly ruptured bladders,urolithiasis, rectovaginal tears ; be able to explain to an owner why you make the recommendation 3.develop postoperative plans for urogenital surgery disorders including urolithiasis*
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    Team-based learning in a subsection of a veterinary course as compared to standard lectures
    (Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2012) Malone, Erin; Spieth, Amie
    Team-Based Learning (TBL) maximizes class time for student practice in complex problems using peer learning in an instructor-guided format. Generally entire courses are structured using the comprehensive guidelines of TBL. We used TBL in a subsection of a veterinary course to determine if it remained effective in this format. One section of the class was taught the material using PowerPoint based lectures. The other group was taught the same material by the same instructor using TBL. All students took the same examination on the material at the end of the course and again 18 months later. There were no differences in the course examination or course grades but grade distributions differed; TBL grades were more widely distributed and female TBL students outperformed male TBL students. TBL students scored significantly higher on the repeat examination. Objective student engagement was high and students were positive about the experience
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    Identification of normal parameters for ultrasonographic examination of the equine large colon and cecum
    (Canadian Veterinary Journal, 2007) Hendickson, EH; Malone, ED; Sage, AM
    Six healthy horses were examined by using transabdominal ultrasonography, as described (1-3), to evaluate activity and size of the large colon and cecum at various locations. Using size and number of sacculations, activity patterns and contractile frequency; significant differences that would allow ultrasonographic identification of dorsal versus ventral colons, if they were displaced, were not found. The cecum had significantly greater activity than the colon, and a trend was seen towards smaller sacculations in the cecum than in the large colon
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    Intravenous Continuous Infusion of Lidocaine for Treatment of Equine Ileus
    (Veterinary Surgery, 2006) Malone, Erin; Ensink, Jos; Turner, Tracy; Wilson, Julie; Andrews, Frank; Keegan, Kevin; Lumsden, Jonathan
    Objective—To determine if intravenous lidocaine is useful and safe as a treatment for equine ileus. Study Design—Prospective double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Study Population—Horses (n¼32) with a diagnosis of postoperative ileus (POI) or enteritis and that had refluxed 420L or had been refluxing for 424 hours. Methods—Refluxing horses were administered lidocaine (1.3mg/kg intravenously [IV] as a bolus followed by a 0.05mg/kg/min infusion) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution placebo for 24 hours. Variables evaluated included volume and duration of reflux, time to 1st fecal passage, signs of pain, analgesic use, heart rate and arrhythmias, respiratory rate, temperature, days of hospitalization, outcome (survival to discharge), and complications. Results—Of the lidocaine-treated horses, 65% (11/17) stopped refluxing within 30 hours (mean SD, 15.2 2.4 hours) whereas 27% (4/15) of the saline-treated horses stopped within 30 hours. Fecal passage was significantly correlated with response to treatment; horses that responded to lidocaine passed feces within 16 hours of starting the infusion. Compared with placebo treatment, lidocaine treatment resulted in shorter hospitalization time for survivors, equivalent survival to discharge, no clinically significant changes in physical or laboratory variables, and no difference in the rate of incisional infections, jugular thrombosis, laminitis, or diarrhea. Muscle fasciculations occurred in 3 lidocaine-treated horses (18%). Conclusion—IV lidocaine significantly improved the clinical course in refluxing horses with minimal side effects. Clinical Relevance—At the infusion rate studied, IV lidocaine is safe and should be considered for the treatment of equine ileus.
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    Bladder outlet obstruction in a 6-month-old alpaca secondary to pelvic displacement of the urinary bladder
    (Canadian Veterinary Journal, 2005) McClanahan, Susan; Malone, Erin; Anderson, Kari
    A 6-month-old female alpaca was presented for stranguria. Based on the history, physical examination findings, and radiographic studies, the alpaca was diagnosed with bladder outlet obstruction, secondary to pelvic displacement of the bladder, a condition previously unreported in camelids. Cystopexy was performed and the alpaca recovered unremarkably.
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    Severe Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis in Older Arabian Horses
    (Veterinary Surgery, 2003) Malone, Erin; Les, Cliff A; Turner, Tracy A
    Objective—To report a severe form of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (CMC-OA) affecting primarily older Arabian horses. Study Design—Retrospective study. Animals—Thirty-one horses with CMC-OA. Methods—Carpal radiographs (405 sets) from 3 hospitals were evaluated to identify horses with marked osteoproliferative reaction across the medial aspect of the CMC joint. Owners were contacted to obtain detailed histories and status updates. Necropsy specimens of the CMC joint were evaluated at 2 hospitals to determine the prevalence of 2 variations in the articulation between the proximalsecond and third metacarpal bones. Results—Thirty-one horses were identified as having marked osteoproliferative reaction at the CMC joint. Twenty-three (74%) were Arabian horses. Of the Arabian horses, the average age at admission was 14.4 years. Eight (34.8%) Arabian horses had a known history of trauma. Most were no longer rideable at presentation. Ten of the horses were subsequently euthanatized because of lameness. The dorsal and palmar articulations between the second and third metacarpal bones were examined in 177 horses. The palmar articulation was absent in 48% of Arabian horses and 12.5% of non-Arabian horses at 1 center, including 4 horses with CMC-OA. At the second center, the palmar articulation was present in 8 of 8 Arabian horses but was absent in 22 of 92 (24%) non-Arabian horses. Conclusions—An increased frequency of this crippling form of OA was observed in Arabian horses. It may reflect an increased prevalence, in some geographical regions, of an absent palmar articulation between the second and third metacarpal bones. Clinical Relevance—Carpal trauma in some Arabian horses may result in unexpectedly severe carpometacarpal osteoarthritis.
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    Effects of intestinal ischemia on in vitro activity of adjacent jejunum in samples obtained from ponies
    (American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2001) Malone, Erin D; Kannan, Mathur S
    Objective—To determine whether intestinal ischemia would alter activity of the jejunum in vitro or alter staining characteristics for certain types of enteric neurotransmitters. Sample Population—Jejunal samples obtained from 10 ponies. Procedure—Jejunal samples were obtained from locations proximal and distal to an area of small intestine made ischemic for 60 minutes. A portion of each sample was stained to detect substance P-like immunoreactivity, cholinergic and adrenergic neurons, and nitric oxide synthase. Portions of the remaining samples were suspended in muscle baths. General activity patterns (frequency and amplitude of contraction), responses to neuronal depolarization induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), and responses to 1 μM norepinephrine (NE) were compared with responses of a normal section of small intestine obtained prior to ischemic insult. Results—Staining patterns were not altered. Proximal and distal sections had evidence of decreased contractility, compared with the normal section. Contraction frequency also was decreased, and distal sections had lower contraction frequency than proximal sections. Relaxation responses were decreased in distal sections. Responses to NE differed significantly for distal and proximal sections, compared with normal sections. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term ischemia can significantly affect adjacent bowel. Contractile and relaxation responses are impaired. Discrepancies in intestinal motility patterns and alterations in response to NE for sections proximal and distal to ischemic intestine could lead to clinical ileus or slowed transit of ingesta.