JTLU Volume 6, No. 1 (2013)

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Table of Contents:
  • Introduction: The Journal of Transport and Land Use enters year six, pp. 1-5
  • Linking urban transport and land use in developing countries, pp. 7-24
  • Measuring the impacts of local land-use policies on vehicle miles of travel: The case of the first big-box store in Davis, California, pp. 25-39
  • Microsimulation framework for urban price-taker markets, pp. 41-51
  • Why people use their cars while the built environment imposes cycling, pp. 53-62
  • What is mixed use? Presenting an interaction method for measuring land use mix, pp. 63-72
  • An Agent-Based Model of Origin Destination Estimation (ABODE), pp. 73-88
  • The impact of transport, land and fiscal policy on housing and economic geography in a small, open growth model, pp. 89-100
  • Book Review: Montréal at the Crossroads, edited by Pierre Gauthier, Jochen Jaeger, and Jason Princer, pp. 101-102
  • Search within JTLU Volume 6, No. 1 (2013)


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      The Journal of Transport and Land Use enters year six
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Levinson, David
      The Journal of Transport and Land Use enters its sixth volume continuing to publish selected peer-reviewed papers from the most recent World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research. The 2014 Symposium will be held in Delft, Netherlands, and we hope to see a large turnout. Look out for invitations and announcements.
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      Linking urban transport and land use in developing countries
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Cervero, Robert
      The mobility challenges of the developing world are considerably different than those in wealthier, advanced countries, and so are the challenges of coordinating transportation and land use. Rapid population growth, poverty and income disparities, overcrowded urban cores, poorly designed road networks, spatial mismatches between housing and jobs, deteriorating environmental conditions, and economic losses from extreme traffic by congestion are among the more vexing challenges faced by developing cities that could be assuaged through improved coordination of transportation and urban development. This is underscored by examples reviewed in this paper from South Asia, Southeast Asia, China, India, Africa, and South America. It is concluded that whatever is done to improve transportation and land-use integration must be pro-poor. The cardinal features of integrated and sustainable transport and urbanism everywhere---accessible urban activities and safe, attractive walking and cycling environs---are particularly vital to the welfare and prosperity of urbanites in the world's poorest countries.
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      Measuring the impacts of local land-use policies on vehicle miles of travel: The case of the first big-box store in Davis, California
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Lovejoy, Kristin; Sciara, Gian-Claudia; Salon, Deborah; Handy, Susan; Mokhtarian, Patricia
      Concerns over climate change have brought new impetus to the goal of reducing vehicle travel through land-use policy. To determine the degree to which land-use policies are effective in reducing vehicle travel, studies are needed that measure and compare vehicle travel both before and after a land-use policy change. The opening of the first big-box retail store in Davis, California, represented a major change in the retail landscape and an unusual opportunity to study its effect on shopping travel. Surveys of residents' shopping behavior conducted before and after the opening of the store revealed a significant shift in where people shopped and a measurable reduction in overall vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for shopping. Although the observed change in VMT is specific to the Davis context, the findings support the general proposition that bringing retail destinations closer to residences could help reduce vehicle travel, particularly where the comparable alternatives for the newly introduced store are far away. The study also offers important insights into the challenges of conducting before-and-after studies of the impact of local land-use changes.
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      Microsimulation framework for urban price-taker markets
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Farooq, Bilal; Miller, Eric; Chingcuanco, Franco; Giroux-Cook, Martin
      In the context of integrated transportation and other urban engineering infrastructure systems, there are many examples of markets, where consumers exhibit price-taking behavior. While this behavior is ubiquitous, the underlying mechanism can be captured in a single framework. Here, we present a microsimulation framework of a price-taker market that recognizes this generality and develop efficient algorithms for the associated market-clearing problem. By abstracting the problem as a specific graph theoretic problem (i.e., maximum weighted bipartite graph), we are first able to exploit algorithms that are developed in graph theory. We then explore their appropriateness in terms of large-scale integrated urban microsimulations. Based on this, we further develop a generic and efficient clearing algorithm that takes advantage of the features specific to urban price-taker markets. This clearing solution is then used to operationalize two price-taker markets, from two different contexts, within a microsimulation of urban systems. The initial validation of results against the observed data generally shows a close match.
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      Why people use their cars while the built environment imposes cycling
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Van Acker, Veronique; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank
      Residing in a high-density, diverse, and accessible neighborhood tends to be associated with less car use, more public transport, and more cycling and walking. However, this does not hold for all people because of differences in personal perceptions and preferences. This paper, therefore, analyzes spatial (mis)match, or the correspondence between perceptions of someone’s residence and the objectively measured spatial characteristics of that residence. Based on a sample for Flanders, Belgium, we found that people tend to overrate the urbanized character of their residence. Among urbanites, (mis)matched spatial perceptions do not influence mode choice. Mode choices remain mainly influenced by urban characteristics and not by personal perceptions as such. However, the influence of spatial (mis)match becomes more important among rural dwellers and, especially, suburbanites. The travel consequences of (mis)matched spatial perceptions thus clearly depend on the residential neighborhood type.
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      What is mixed use? Presenting an interaction method for measuring land use mix
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Manaugh, Kevin; Kreider, Tyler
      In recent decades, the mixing of complementary land uses has become an increasingly important goal in transportation and land use planning. Land uses mix has been shown to be an influential factor in travel behavior (mode choice and distance traveled), improved health outcomes, and neighborhood-level quality of life. However, quantifying the extent to which a given area is mixed-use has proven difficult. Much of the existing research on the mixing of land uses has focused on the presence and proportion of different uses as opposed to the extent to which they actually interact with one another. This study proposes a new measure of land use mix, a land use interaction method—which accounts for the extent to which complementary land uses adjoin one another—using only basic land use data. After mapping and analyzing the results, several statistical models are built to show the relationship between this new measure and reported travel behavior. The models presented show the usefulness of the approach by significantly improving the model fit in comparison to a commonly-used land use mix index, while controlling for socio-demographic and built form factors in three large Canadian cities (Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal). Our results suggest that simple, area-based, measures of land use mix do not adequately capture the subtleties of land use mix. The degree to which an area shows fine-grained patterns of land use is shown to be more highly correlated with behavior outcomes than indices based solely on the proportions of land use categories.
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      An Agent-Based Model of Origin Destination Estimation (ABODE)
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Tilahun, Nebiyou; Levinson, David
      This paper proposes and tests an agent-based model of worker and job matching. The model takes residential locations of workers and the locations of employers as exogenous and deals specifically with the interactions between firms and workers in creating a job-worker match and the commute outcomes. It is meant to illustrate that by explicitly modeling the search and hiring process, origins and destinations (ODs) can be linked at a disaggregate level. The model is tested on a toy-city as well as using data from the Twin Cities area. The toy-city model illustrates that the model predicts reasonable commute outcomes, with agents selecting the closest work place when wage and skill differentiation is absent in the labor market. The introduction of wage dispersion and skill differentiation in the model increases the the average home to work distances considerably. Using data from Twin Cities area of Minneapolis-St. Paul, aggregate commute and wage outcomes from the model are shown to capture the trends in the observed data. Overall, the results suggest that the behavior rules as implemented lead to reasonable patterns. Future directions are also discussed.
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      The impact of transport, land and fiscal policy on housing and economic geography in a small, open growth model
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Zhang, Wei-Bin
      This study proposes a spatial model to examine dynamic interactions among growth, economic geography, the housing market, and public goods in a small, open economic growth model. We emphasize the impact of transport, land and fiscal policy on the spatial economy. The economy consists of the industrial sector, housing sector and local public goods. The model synthesizes the main ideas in the neoclassical growth theory, the Alonso urban model and the Muth housing model within the neoclassical open, small-growth framework. We solve the dynamics of the economic system and simulate the model to demonstrate dynamic interactions among economic growth, the housing market, residential distribution and public goods over time and space. Our simulation demonstrates, for instance, that as the tax rate on land income is increased, the total capital stocks and the stocks employed by the housing and public sectors are increased, the land devoted to local public goods falls and land rents and housing rents rise over space, and the consumption level of industrial goods and the total expenditures on public goods are increased. Our integrating model provides some new insights that cannot be obtained from the component models.
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      Montréal at the Crossroads
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013) Anderson, Paul
      Montreal at the Crossroads is an overview of the issues surrounding the provincial government's proposal to rebuild the aging Turcot Interchange. In a broad sense, it discusses whether it is appropriate to rebuild aging highway infrastructure or whether the need for highway infrastructure renewal should be an opportunity to make major changes in the urban transportation network. Each chapter was written by different authors and contributes a separate view of the Turcot Interchange and the proposals to rebuild it.