JTLU Volume 7, No. 2 (2014)

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Table of Contents:
  • Special section: Innovations in location choice modeling underlying activity-travel behavior, pp. 1-2
  • The role of location in residential location choice models: a review of literature, pp. 3-21
  • Integrating people and place: A density-based measure for assessing accessibility to opportunities, pp. 23-40
  • Temporal transferability of models of mode-destination choice for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, pp. 41-62
  • Spatial self-selection in land-use–travel behavior interactions: accounting simultaneously for attitudes and socioeconomic characteristics, pp. 63-84
  • Location choice for a continuous simulation of long periods under changing conditions, pp. 85-103
  • A note on commuting times and city size: Testing variances as well as means, pp. 105-110
  • A mode choice analysis of school trips in New Jersey, pp. 111-133
  • A vehicle ownership and utilization choice model with endogenous residential density, pp. 135-151
  • Network structure and metropolitan mobility, pp. 153-168
  • Search within JTLU Volume 7, No. 2 (2014)


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      Special section: Innovations in location choice modeling underlying activity-travel behavior
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Scott, Darren M.; Ho-Yin Lee, Brian; Miller, Eric
      This special section of the Journal of Transport and Land Use focuses on location choice modeling underlying activity-travel behavior and includes five manuscripts that were originally presented in Toronto, Canada at the Thirteenth International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, organized by the International Association for Travel Behaviour Research (IATBR).
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      The role of location in residential location choice models: a review of literature
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Schirmer, Patrick; van Eggermond, Michael A.B.; Axhausen, Kay
      Geospatial data available to researchers has increased tremendously over the last several decades, opening up opportunities to define residential location in multiple ways. This has led to a myriad of variables to define "location'' in residential location choice models. In this paper, we propose a common classification for location variables and categorize findings from a wide range of studies. We find similar preferences but different measurement methods and market segments for locations across different study regions. Recent studies consider the residential unit as choice alternative, making it possible to include a detailed description of the built environment. However, these studies are still limited in number and the inclusion of socioeconomic environment is more common. Transport land-use models can benefit from the inclusion of points of interest, such as schools, network distances, and the distance to previous locations. For the results of location choice models to be transferable to different disciplines, and avoid multi-collinearity, it is necessary to present different model specifications, including variables of interest in different disciplines.
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      Integrating people and place: A density-based measure for assessing accessibility to opportunities
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Horner, Mark; Downs, Joni
      Mobile object analysis is a well-studied area of transportation and geographic information science (GIScience). Mobile objects may include people, animals, or vehicles. Time geography remains a key theoretical framework for understanding mobile objects' movement possibilities. Recent efforts have sought to develop probabilistic methods of time geography by exploring questions of data uncertainty, spatial representation, and other limitations of classical approaches. Along these lines, work has blended time geography and kernel density estimation in order to delineate the probable locations of mobile objects in both continuous and discrete network space. This suite of techniques is known as time geographic density estimation (TGDE). The present paper explores a new direction for TGDE, namely the creation of a density-based accessibility measure for assessing mobile objects' potential for interacting with opportunity locations. As accessibility measures have also garnered widespread attention in the literature, the goal here is to understand the magnitude and nature of the opportunities a mobile object had access to, given known location points and a time budget for its movement. New accessibility measures are formulated and demonstrated with synthetic trip diary data. The implications of the new measures are discussed in the context of people-based vs. placed-based accessibility analyses.
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      Temporal transferability of models of mode-destination choice for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Fox, James; Daly, Andrew; Hess, Stephane; Miller, Eric
      Transport planning relies extensively on forecasts of traveler behavior over horizons of 20 years and more. Implicit in such forecasts is the assumption that travelers’ tastes, as represented by the behavioral model parameters, are constant over time. In technical terms, this assumption is referred to as the "temporal transferability" of the models. This paper summarizes the findings from a literature review that demonstrates there is little evidence about the transferability of mode-destination models over typical forecasting horizons. The literature review shows a relative lack of empirical studies given the importance of the issue. To provide further insights and evidence, models of commuter mode-destination choice been developed from household interview data collected across the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area in 1986, 1996, 2001, and 2006. The analysis demonstrates that improving model specification improves the transferability of the models, and in general the transferability declines as the transfer period increases. The transferability of the level-of-service parameters is higher than transferability of the cost parameters, which has important implications when considering the accuracy of forecasts for different types of policy. The transferred models over-predict the key change in mode share over the transfer period—specifically, the shift from local transit to auto driver between 1986 and 1996—but under-predict the growth in commuting tour lengths over the same period.
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      Spatial self-selection in land-use–travel behavior interactions: Accounting simultaneously for attitudes and socioeconomic characteristics
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Abreu e Silva, João de
      Spatial self-selection can be ascribed to two main factors: socioeconomic characteristics or attitudinal aspects towards travel and location choices. Several studies have investigated the influence of self-selection on the relations between travel behavior and land-use patterns. So far the results could be considered mixed. The model proposed herein uses data collected in 2009 for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. A structural equations model was built to study the effects of spatial self-selection due to both socioeconomic and attitudinal effects. Three model specifications were considered: one treating attitudes toward travel as exogenous and two others considering them as endogenous. The preferred specification considered attitudes as exogenous. The land-use patterns are described by factors both at the residence and employment zones of each individual. The travel behavior variables included here are multidimensional and include commuting distance, car ownership, the number of trips by mode, and the total amount of time between the first and last trips. On account of the data characteristics and sample size, Bayesian estimation, as implemented in AMOSTM software, was used. The results obtained show that although the attitudinal variables significantly influence travel behavior, they do not annul the effects of land-use patterns in also contributing to shape the same behavior.
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      Location choice for a continuous simulation of long periods under changing conditions
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Märki, Fabian; Charypar, David; Axhausen, Kay
      The authors propose a location choice procedure that is capable of handling changing conditions of aspects with different time horizons. It integrates expected travel time, current location effectiveness, prospective location effectiveness, and individual unexplained location perception into a decision heuristic that considers different planning horizons simultaneously and decides on-the-fly about future location visits. Multiple simulation runs illustrate agents' location choice behavior in various situations and confirm that the model enables agents to simultaneously consider seasonal effects, weather conditions, expected travel times, and individual unexplained location preference in their location choice.
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      A note on commuting times and city size: Testing variances as well as means
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) An, Qian; Gordon, Peter; Moore, James, II
      Relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between commute time variances and city size. In this paper, we utilize 2009 Nationwide Highway Travel Survey data and test the relationship between area commute-time means as well as variances in metropolitan-area size. We include tests for metropolitan areas as a whole and for residents from urban, suburban, second city, and town-and-county areas. The regression analysis shows that all estimated slopes are statistically significant but not much greater than zero. Commute time means and variances are highly correlated. These relationships are also invariant with respect to the place of residence. An extensive collection of literature provides evidence for the co-location of workers and jobs hypothesis: average commute times do not rise appreciably as metropolitan population increases. We conclude that these results are additional, although indirect, evidence for the co-location hypothesis.
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      A mode choice analysis of school trips in New Jersey
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Noland, Robert; Park, Hyunsoo; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann; Chatman, Daniel G.
      This paper examines the mode choice behavior of children’s travel to school based on surveys conducted at a sample of schools in New Jersey. The main focus is on a variety of network design, land use, and infrastructure variables that have typically been associated with walking activity. Using a mixed logit model, it is found that good connectivity, more intense residential land use, and better sidewalk infrastructure are associated with increased walking to school. The use of a mixed logit model allows the examination of individual heterogeneity. Results indicate substantial heterogeneity in behavior associated with built environment variables.
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      A vehicle ownership and utilization choice model with endogenous residential density
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Brownstone, David; Fang, Hao (Audrey)
      This paper explores the impact of residential density on households’ vehicle type and usage choices using the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Attempts to quantify the effect of urban form on households’ vehicle choice and utilization often encounter the problem of sample selectivity. Household characteristics that are unobservable to the researchers might determine simultaneously where to live, what vehicles to choose, and how much to drive them. Unless this simultaneity is modeled, any relationship between residential density and vehicle choice may be biased. This paper extends the Bayesian multivariate ordered probit and tobit model developed in Fang (2008) to treat local residential density as endogenous. The model includes equations for vehicle ownership and usage in terms of number of cars, number of trucks (vans, sports utility vehicles, and pickup trucks), miles traveled by cars, and miles traveled by trucks. We carry out policy simulations that show that an increase in residential density has a negligible effect on car choice and utilization, but slightly reduces truck choice and utilization. The largest impact we find is a -.4 arc elasticity of truck fuel use with respect to density. We also perform an out-of-sample forecast using a holdout sample to test the robustness of the model.
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      Network structure and metropolitan mobility
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2014) Parthasarathi, Pavithra
      This research aims to develop quantitative measures that capture various aspects of the underlying network structure, using aggregate level travel data from fifty metropolitan areas across the US. The influence of these measures on system performance is then tested using statistical regression models. The results corroborate that the quantitative measures of network structure affect the system performance. The results from this analysis can be used to develop network design guidelines that can be used to address current transportation problems.