Family Medicine Clerkship Patient Education Handouts

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The Family Medicine Clerkship (FMC) is required 4-week interdisciplinary course for all third and fourth year medical students which is one course replacing the 8-week Primary Care Clerkship (PCC) that concluded, April 2009. Students in the FMC complete a course project, continued from the PCC, which involves answering a clinical question generated during patient care in their family medicine clinic. In addition to summarizing the research available to answer this clinical question, students also translate this medical language into a document suitable to inform an average patient on this topic – a Patient Education Tool (PET) handout. The information provided does not necessarily reflect the views of the University of Minnesota Medical School physicians and faculty. These materials are provided for informational purposes only and are in no way intended to take the place of the advice and recommendations of your personal health care provider. You use the information provided in these handouts at your own risk.

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    Diabetes During Pregnancy: a guide for mothers-to-be diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes
    (2011-12-01) Morcomb, Erin
    Gestational Diabetes occurs in pregnant women who have never been diagnosed with diabetes before but who have high blood sugar (glucose) levels during pregnancy. The exact cause is unknown. Some scientists believe that it is caused by hormones released from the placenta, the structure that helps support the baby as it grows inside of its mother. These hormones are important for the baby’s development, but they can also lead to a phenomenon called insulin resistance, which makes it hard for the mother’s body to use insulin even though it is making enough of it. Since insulin is responsible for getting glucose into cells so that it can be used for energy, and since the mother’s body is resistant to it, the sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia, and it can lead to devastating consequences for both the mom and baby.
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    Strep Throat: Is my child sick?
    (2011-09-09) Johnson, Elise
    Group A Strep pharyngitis, also known as Strep throat, is one of the causes of a sore throat in a child. There are specific signs and symptoms of Strep throat, and your doctor will examine your child looking for these. There are also many viruses that cause sore throat, and these will not respond to antibiotics.
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    Bacterial Vaginosis: What is there to know?
    (2010-12-03) Hansen, Elizabeth
    Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is an infection caused when the naturally occurring bacteria in a woman’s vagina become imbalanced. BV is linked to sexual activity with men and women. Women who have sex with women have unique risk of getting BV like sharing sex toys with partners. WSW who have BV are more likely to have a partner who also has it. BV frequently has no symptoms and it is treated with antibiotics. WSW can decrease their chances of getting BV by practicing safer sex, washing sex toys between users. Read more about BV in this easy to read FAQ-style handout!
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    Low dose aspirin should be continued in the perioperative period for patients with cardiac risk factors who are scheduled for non-cardiac surgery
    (2010-11-02) McAdams, Sean
    Low-dose aspirin is strongly recommended for prevention of a heart attack in patients with known cardiac risk factors. These risk factors include previous heart attack, coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, poor kidney function, and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Patients are commonly instructed to discontinue low-dose aspirin before surgery because of the anti-platelet effect of the drug may increase surgical bleeding and surgical complications. Despite these concerns, there is evidence that patients who take low-dose aspirin prior to surgery have less risk of heart attack, and do not have an increased number of complications from surgical bleeding.
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    Protein Supplementation for Exercise
    (2010-11-02) Gol, Mohammad Abraham Kazemizadeh
    This document addresses protein supplementation for athletes. It covers some of the potential side effects. It also addresses the issue of if and when protein supplementation is helpful, and what benefits a person could expect from using protein supplements. Specifically, protein supplements may be most helpful for people who exercise at a moderate to extreme intensity on consecutive days. Compared to people who don't take protein supplementation, people who use protein supplements during consecutive days of moderate to extreme exercise may have less fatigue, maintain more muscle strength throughout their exercise, and continue their exercise for longer periods of time before exhaustion. They also have less muscle breakdown products in their blood.
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    Your Heart & Cocaine
    (2010-11-02) Cascino, Matthew
    Cocaine-associated MI is a well-described complication of cocaine use. This patient education pamphlet discusses the prevention of future MI including cocaine cessation, smoking cessation, and modification of traditional risk factors for atherothrombosis.
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    Vitamin D supplementation
    (2010-11-02) Meyer, Laura
    Vitamin D supplementation is an inexpensive intervention that has many known benefits, including the maintenance of bone health. Given the current interest in the potential benefits of adequate vitamin D status, many patients are supplementing. A meta-analysis published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007 indicates that vitamin D supplementation is not associated with adverse effects; in fact, there appears to be an associated decrease in all-cause mortality.
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    Spina Bifida in the Latino Population
    (2010-11-02) Lewallen, Laura
    Maternal risk factors as well as demographic variables are involved in the development of neural tube defects. Acculturation factors such as being foreign-born or having recently immigrated to the US increase the risk for neural tube defects. Therefore, those modifiable risk factors, such as adequate control of maternal diabetes and weight during pregnancy, are especially important for the Latino population.
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    Getting the Right Message about Alcohol
    (2010-11-02) AStani, Seyed
    Many researches show that if you use low levels of alcohol it may decrease the chance of death from heart diseases. These researches studied only certain ages with certain conditions and risk factors. The same studies also showed that alcohol may cause many cancers and other diseases that can kill you. These studies looked at short-term effects of alcohol on the heart. Long-term effects of alcohol on the heart of humans have not been studied.
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    Oral Cancer
    (2010-11-02) Kudak, Brent
    Oral cancer screening by visual inspection is an effective screening tool when applied to people over 35 who smoke or drink, or both. This pamphlet describes the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer.
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    Oral Anticoagulation: for Stroke Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
    (2010-11-02) McKenzie, Kyle
    Oral anticoagulants are effective at preventing strokes in patients who have atrial fibrillation without significantly increasing hemorrhage. The more risk factors for stroke that a patient has along with atrial fibrillation the more benefit from oral anticoagulants. The benefit of stroke prevention needs to be weighed against risk of hemorrhage, life style change, medical monitoring, and cost.
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    What Am I Eating? How you can stop the food you eat from becoming extra weight.
    (2010-11-02) Brintnall, Joy
    Standard care of physician counseling on diet changes is not effective in preventing obesity. Physician training or office reminders may be promising in improving weight loss in patients.
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    Chronic Pelvic Pain (Diagnosis and Treatment)
    (2010-11-02) Abdullahi, Isahaq
    Implanon (single-rod, progesterone only, non-biodegradable implant) is an effective hormonal alternative with tolerable side effects for premenopausal women suffering from chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome. Prior treatment involved transcatheter embolotherapy of the ovarian veins. Implanon was able to decrease the symptoms of chronic pelvic pain due to pelvic congestion syndrome in the experimental group. In addition, Implanon decreased venous congestion as seen by improved venography evaluations after completion of the study, It is believed that venous stasis as a result of tortuous and dilated veins in the pelvis is the underlying pathophysiology of pelvic congestion syndrome. Implanon’s side effects were reported to be much more tolerable than other hormonal therapy treatments, and a safe alternative for women who desire non-invasive treatment.
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    Weight loss as an effective alternative treatment for stress urinary incontinence
    (2010-11-02) Alimi, Adebisi
    A patient education tool describing type’s urinary incontinence in women. Obesity is one of the modifiable risk factor of Stress incontinence. There are many treatment options available for obese or overweight women with SUI. The gold standard of SUI management is surgical . However weight loss is an ideal first line option for obese and overweight women with stress incontinence. Additional benefits of weight loss include better risks and cost benefits outcomes over surgical option and improvement of other co morbidities in obese or overweight patients include hypertension, type 2 DM and hyperlipidemia.
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    Bariatric Surgery is a viable treatment for obesity and associated co-morbidities
    (2010-11-02) Olson, Steve
    This study was a Meta-Analysis of bariatric procedures that took 2738 studies from their search and narrowed the population to 136 after eliminating studies that either met exclusion criteria or did not meet inclusion criteria. The mean BMI of the patient population was 46. Patients experienced (95% CI) 47%-70% loss of excess weight depending on the type of procedure they had. Also, 70-85% patients also experienced a reduction or complete reversal of Diabetes, Sleep Apnea, Hyperlipidemia, and Hypertension. Mortality of the procedures was less than 1%
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    Meningitis: A Public Guide
    (2010-11-02) Hallberg, Rolf
    This handout describes the symptoms of meningitis in easy to understand language for the public. Helping the public understand the symptoms of meningitis will help aid in earlier diagnosis and intervention.
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    Canadian CT Head Rule is an Effective Clinical Screening Tool in Minor Head Trauma Cases.
    (2010-11-02) Donald, Bryan
    The Canadian CT Head Rule is a simple screening tool used in cases of adults with minor head trauma. It can identify patients needing surgery 100% of the time while limiting the number of patients needing head CT to only 32% of those with minor head trauma and a loss of consciousness.
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    St. Johnʼs wort (Hypericum perforatum extract) is effective for treatment of mild to moderate major depression.
    (2010-11-02) Wolbrink, Dan
    A clinical trial found that St. John’s wort can be used to treat some forms of depression. The evidence holds open the possibility of effective herbal treatments for patients with mild to moderate depression.
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    Actinic Keratosis: Patient Information
    (2010-11-02) Aakhus, Angela
    Actinic Keratoses are precancerous skin lesions that are prevalent in the aging population. This brochure educates patients on the definition, causes, treatment and prevention of actinic keratoses.
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    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening is not a useful tool in screening the general population for prostate cancer
    (2010-11-02) Piper, Kevin
    This project aims to educate the public about the lack of evidence to support screening the general population for prostate cancer by using blood tests. Simply looking at the financial cost of such screening, one can easily see the great expense in adding just one year to one person’s life. Further review would demonstrate such screening not only is very expensive, but many times causes more harm than good. In a time of great financial difficulty in the United States, it is crucial that the health care industry uses screening techniques that are proven to be cost effective (and improve health outcomes).