Volume 03, Number 2, 2012

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    Extent of Drug Coverage across Generic Drug Discount Programs offered by Community Pharmacies: A look at five Chronic Conditions
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Patel, Harshali K.; Akinwunmi, Peter O.; Sansgiry, Sujit S.
    Background: Chronic conditions are expensive to treat because of the ongoing prescription cost burden. Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs) that offer generics at discounted price may prove beneficial to reduce pharmacy costs for the same. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which GDDPs provide drug coverage for five common chronic conditions. Methods: A content analyses of preexisting information was conducted. Extent of coverage based on top 200 generic drugs prescribed during 2008 for the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension, mental disorders, arthritis, pulmonary/respiratory conditions, and diabetes were identified. Commonly prescribed medications for these diseases were identified using published peer reviewed clinical guidelines. List of drugs covered under a GDDP for stores, Wal-Mart, Walgreens, CVS, Kroger, HEB, Target, and Randalls were obtained and compared to assess drug coverage by retail dollar sales and sales volume. Descriptive statistics and frequency/percentage of coverage were reported using SAS 9.2. Results: GDDPs covered the highest number of drugs for hypertension (21-27 across different GDDPs) and the least (3-5 across different GDDPs) for pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Arthritis (5-11), mental disorders (6-11) and diabetes (5-7) had similar coverage. When compared to the top 200 drugs by retail dollars spent during 2008, hypertension (68%-87%) and diabetes (63%-88%) had the highest coverage followed by respiratory conditions (30%-50%), arthritis (22%-48%), and mental disorders (21%-38%). Similar result was obtained when GDDP coverage was compared with the top 200 generic drugs by sales volume, where diabetes (63-88%) and hypertension (57%-74%) had the highest coverage and mental disorders remained the lowest (23%-37%). Conclusion/Implications: Drug coverage in GDDPs varied by pharmacies across the five common chronic conditions evaluated which may limit accessibility of these programs for uninformed consumers. Drug coverage was higher for diabetes and hypertension compared to mental disorders, arthritis, and pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Innovative strategies such as a national GDDP formulary list or internet-based technological tools to help consumers identify comparative drug coverage may be useful to improve access to these medications.
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    Design and Implementation of Antidepressant Decision Making Aids
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) DeJongh, Beth; Haight, Robert
    Objectives: To create easy to understand, antidepressant medication decision making aids and describe the process used to develop the aids for patients diagnosed with depression. Methods: In collaboration with the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI), antidepressant medication decision making aids were developed to enhance patient and physician communication about medication selection. The final versions of the aids were based on design methods created by Dr. Victor M. Montori (Mayo Clinic) and discussions with patients and providers. Five physicians used prototype aids in their outpatient clinics to assess their usefulness. Results: Six prototype antidepressant medication decision making aids were created to review potential side-effects of antidepressant medications. The side effects included were those patients feel are most bothersome or may contribute to premature discontinuation of antidepressant treatment, including: weight changes, sexual dysfunction, sedation, and other unique side effects. The decision aids underwent several revisions before they were distributed to physicians. Physicians reported patients enjoyed using the decision aids and found them useful. The sexual dysfunction card was considered the most useful while the daily administration schedule card was felt to be the least useful. Conclusions: Physicians found the antidepressant decision making aids helpful and felt they improved their usual interactions with patients. The aids may lead to more patient-centered treatment choices and empower patients to become more directly involved in their treatment. Whether the aids improve patient’s medication adherence needs to be addressed in future studies.
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    Establishing the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet): Perspectives of Community Pharmacy Employees
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Seel, Lindsey V.; Hultgren, Kyle E.; Snyder, Margie E.
    The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to determine community pharmacy employee research project priorities and assess interest levels, barriers, and facilitators to joining a new community pharmacy practice-based research network (PBRN) and use this information in subsequent PBRN development. One hundred forty pharmacists and 40 support staff responded. The majority (72%) of respondents were somewhat interested or needed more information to determine their level of interest in joining a PBRN; 15% were very interested. While all research topics were regarded as important, dispensing errors were rated as the most important. Time constraints were considered the greatest barrier to participation. Greater knowledge of medication safety, enrichment of patient care, and improved patient and provider relationships were considered important reasons for joining a PBRN. Responses indicated favorable interest levels and project support from potential network members, though education and awareness campaigns are needed to enhance community pharmacy employee understanding of and involvement in research and PBRNs, specifically the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), a new network administered by the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. While the generalizability of survey results is limited, they were useful in determining policies and procedures of the new network. Surveying all employees involved in the future PBRN during the network development process is a unique approach to developing these types of networks in the U.S. Understanding support staff perspectives is important considering the critical role they play in project implementation and operations. Emerging PBRNs from any discipline may benefit from considering adding this step to their development.
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    Experience Developing a Community Pharmacy Practice-based Research Network
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Snyder, Margie E.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Seel, Lindsey V.; Hultgren, Kyle E.
    In 2010, the Purdue University College of Pharmacy established the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), the first practice-based research network (PBRN) in Indiana comprised solely of community pharmacies. In the development of Rx-SafeNet and through our early project experiences, we identified several “lessons learned.” We share our story and what we learned in an effort to further advance the work of the greater PBRN community. We have formed the infrastructure for Rx-SafeNet, including an Executive Committee, Advisory Board, member pharmacies/site coordinators, and Project Review Team. To date, 22 community pharmacies have joined and we have recently completed data collection for the network’s first project. Lessons learned during the development of Rx-SafeNet may benefit PBRNs nationally. Although community pharmacy PBRNs are not yet commonplace in the U.S., we believe their development and subsequent research efforts serve as an important avenue for investigating medication use issues.
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    Impact of Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists in Educating and Screening Low-Income Women for Cardiovascular Disease
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) DiPietro, Natalie A.; Sobota, Kristen Finley; Giannamore, Martin R.
    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy. Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Participants met individually with a student pharmacist or faculty member and verbally completed the pre-test. The participant received education regarding CVD, risk factors, and symptoms of myocardial infarction and were screened for hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The post-test was then verbally administered. Participants answered the satisfaction survey privately. Based on individual needs, educational materials and information on available pharmacy clinical services were provided. The university IRB deemed the study exempt. Results: Eighty-four individuals received educational materials and/or a screening test. Of those, 30 women (mean age 46.9 years) completed the educational intervention. Thirteen (43%) reported smoking; 22 (73%) identified themselves as overweight. Fourteen (47%) indicated a preexisting diagnosis of hypertension. Correct responses for 6 of 8 knowledge-based questions were statistically significantly improved from pre-test to post-test (p<0.05). Twenty-nine patients (97%) rated the program as “useful” or “very useful”. Conclusion: CVD is the leading cause of death in U.S. women. Data from this program indicate that through screening and education, pharmacists and student pharmacists can impact female patients’ knowledge of CVD risk factors. Continued efforts in this area may help to reduce the public health burden of CVD.
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    Antidepressant Use Amongst College Students: Findings of a Phenomenological Study
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Singh, Reshmi L.; Schommer, Jon C.; Worley, Marcia M.; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia
    Background: Depression among college students is an escalating problem and could have serious consequences such as suicide. There has been an increase in use of antidepressants on college campuses in United States. However, an in depth understanding of this phenomenon from the college student’s perspective is lacking in the literature. Objective: This study examined college students’ experiences and treatment decision making during their depression treatment. Methods: A longitudinal, phenomenological research methodology was completed. The participants were nine students who were taking antidepressants for diagnosis of depression. Recruitment was done via brochures placed at University bulletin boards, and a mental health clinic. Three audio taped, unstructured interviews were conducted with each participant over four months. The central question asked was: What has the experience of treating depression been for you? Analysis of text was done using Van Manen’s lifeworld existentials of lived body, lived time, lived relation and lived space as the organizing framework. Results: Thirteen themes were identified within the four lifeworlds. The results showed that lived relation with providers was important for college students’ decision to both initiate and continue antidepressant use. Students’ role was defined in conjunction with provider’s role by them as wanting to be a ‘player’ in their treatment decisions and needing to be ‘acknowledged’ as such by their providers. Conclusions: Overall, the underlying essential theme
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    Implementing a Pharmacist-Led Medication Management Pilot to Improve Care Transitions
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Root, Rachel; Phelps, Pamela; Brummel, Amanda; Else, Craig
    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to design and pilot a pharmacist-led process to address medication management across the continuum of care within a large integrated health-system. Summary: A care transitions pilot took place within a health-system which included a 150-bed community hospital. The pilot process expanded the pharmacist’s medication management responsibilities to include providing discharge medication reconciliation, a patient-friendly discharge medication list, discharge medication education, and medication therapy management (MTM) follow-up. Adult patients with a predicted diagnosis-related group (DRG) of congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the medical-surgical and intensive care units who utilized a primary care provider within the health-system were included in the pilot. Forty patients met the inclusion criteria and thirty-four (85%) received an intervention from an inpatient or MTM pharmacist. Within this group of patients, 88 drug therapy problems (2.6 per patient) were identified and 75% of the drug therapy recommendations made by the pharmacist were accepted by the care provider. The 30-day all-cause readmission rates for the intervention and comparison groups were 30.5% and 35.9%, respectively. The number of patients receiving follow-up care varied with 10 (25%) receiving MTM follow-up, 26 (65%) completing a primary care visit after their first hospital discharge, and 23 (58%) receiving a home care visit. Conclusion: Implementation of a pharmacist-led medication management pilot across the continuum of care resulted in an improvement in the quality of care transitions within the health-system through increased identification and resolution of drug therapy problems and MTM follow-up. The lessons learned from the implementation of this pilot will be used to further refine pharmacy care transitions programs across the health-system.
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    The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the novel (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine
    (University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 2012-07) Coe, Antoinette B.; Gatewood, Sharon B.S.; Moczygemba, Leticia R.; Goode, Jean-Venable “Kelly” R.
    Objectives: 1) Assess participants’ perceptions of severity, risk, and susceptibility to the novel H1N1 influenza virus and/or vaccine, vaccine benefits and barriers, and cues to action and 2) Identify predictors of participants’ intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study Setting: Local grocery store chain and university in the central Virginia area Participants: Convenience sample of adult college students and grocery store patrons Intervention: Participants filled out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire based upon the Health Belief Model. Main Outcome Measures: Participants’ predictors of intention to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine Results: A total of 664 participants completed a questionnaire. The majority of participants were aged 25-64 years old (66.9%). The majority were female (69.1%), Caucasian (73.7%), and felt at risk for getting sick from the virus (70.3%). Most disagreed that they would die from the virus (68.0%). Participants received novel H1N1 vaccine recommendations from their physicians (28.2%), pharmacists (20.7%), and nurses (16.1%). The majority intended to receive the H1N1 vaccine (58.1%). Participants were significantly more likely to intend to receive the H1N1 vaccine if they had lower scores on the perceived vaccine barriers domain (OR= 0.57, CI: 0.35-0.93). Physicians’ recommendations (OR=0.26, CI: 0.11-0.62) and 2008 seasonal flu vaccination (OR=0.45, CI: 0.24-0.83) were significant predictors of intention to receive the H1N1 vaccine. Conclusions: Most participants felt at risk for getting the novel H1N1 virus and intended to receive the novel H1N1 vaccine. Educating patients about vaccine benefits and increasing healthcare professionals' vaccine recommendations may increase vaccination rates in future pandemics.