JTLU Volume 1, No. 2 (2008)

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Table of Contents:
  • From the Editors, pp. 1-3
  • Accessibility: Long-Term Perspectives, pp. 5-22
  • Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong, pp. 23-49
  • Seven American TODs: Good Practices for Urban Design in Transit-Oriented Development Projects, pp. 51-88
  • The Role of Urban Form in Shaping Access to Opportunities: An Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis, pp. 89-119
  • The Role of Employment Subcenters in Residential Location Decisions, pp. 121-151
  • Equity Impacts of Transportation Improvements On Core and Peripheral Cities. pp. 153-182
  • Book Review: Planning for Place and Plexus, pp. 183-185
  • Search within JTLU Volume 1, No. 2 (2008)


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    • Item
      From the Editors
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Levinson, David M.; Krizek, Kevin J.
      This article introduces the second issue of Journal of Transport and Land Use (vol. 1, no. 2).
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      Accessibility: Long-Term Perspectives
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Axhausen, Kay
      Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits throughout recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller’s logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost) network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.
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      Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: The Case of Hong Kong
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Lo, Hong K.; Tang, Siman; Wang, David Z.W.
      Public transit services (PTS) improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.
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      Seven American TODs: Good Practices for Urban Design in Transit-Oriented Development Projects
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Jacobson, Justin; Forsyth, Ann
      In the past few decades, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) has emerged as a popular and influential planning concept in the United States. Physical design is an important aspect of making TOD projects work as it is a crucial means of coordinating relatively intensive land uses and multiple transportation modes. This paper analyzes seven American TOD projects in terms of urban design and concludes with a discussion of “good practices” for future TOD projects focusing on development processes, place-making, and facilities. This paper supplements prior scholarship on TOD that has tended to focus on policy issues such as regulation and financing.
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      The Role of Urban Form in Shaping Access to Opportunities
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Scott, Darren M.; Horner, Mark W.
      This study employs a comprehensive suite of accessibility indices to investigate whether American cities are designed in such a way that the locations of goods, services, and other opportunities favor certain socioeconomic groups over others. In so doing, the study’s findings contribute to pressing policy issues such as social exclusion. Seven counties of the Louisville, KY-IN MSA serve as the study area for the investigation. Data are derived from three sources: a geocoded travel diary survey that was conducted in the study area in 2000, a geocoded database of all urban opportunities in the study area, and a database containing shortest path travel times between the locations of households and urban opportunities. Accessibility indices (i.e., gravity, cumulative opportunity, and proximity) are computed for households found in the trip diary survey. Furthermore, these indices are defined for 34 types of opportunities: four aggregate types (i.e., retail, service, leisure, and religious) and 30 disaggregate types representing the 10 most popular destinations for trips for each of the first three aggregate types. Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests are used to compare the accessibilities of five socioeconomic groups (i.e., individuals residing in rural communities, individuals residing in single-person and single-parent households, individuals residing in low-income households, women, and the elderly) to their counterparts. Except for individuals residing in rural areas, our findings indicate that groups, which conventional wisdom would suggest are at risk of social exclusion, are not disadvantaged in terms of accessibility.
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      The Role of Employment Subcenters in Residential Location Decisions
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Cho, Eun Joo; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Song, Yan
      In this paper we employ Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, a polycentric city with 10 employment subcenters, as a case study to explore the role of employment subcenters in determining residential location decisions. We estimate discrete choice models of residential location decisions: conditional logit models and heteroscedastic logit models with both the full choice set and sampled choices. We find that access to certain employment subcenters, measured in terms of generalized cost, is an important determinant of households’ residential location decisions. The proximity to specific employment subcenters varies across households with different income levels. These patterns can be explained by existing land use and transportation patterns, as well as by subcenters’ economic specialization.
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      Equity Impacts of Transportation Improvements On Core and Peripheral Cities
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Leck, Eran; Bekhor, Shlomo; Gat, Daniel
      The aim of this paper is to assess the short-term impact of transportation improvements on the reduction of socioeconomic disparities between core and peripheral cities. Data used in the analysis was extracted from the 1995 Israel Census. The methodology applied in the study was to estimate discrete choice models in an attempt to identify key variables affecting commuting decisions. Policy simulations are employed to illustrate the effect of diminishing spatial friction on wage convergence between poor southern towns and affluent core cities. The empirical evidence suggests that transportation improvements, especially in the form of introducing new rail links in underserved cities, could significantly contribute to the alleviation of spatial wage disparities between core and peripheral cities.
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      Book Review: Planning for Place and Plexus
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2008) Handy, Susan L.
      This article reviews the book Planning for Place and Plexus: Metropolitan Land Use and Transport by David M. Levinson and Kevin J. Krizek (Routledge, New York; 2008).