Design-Based Online Teacher Professional Development to Introduce Integration of STEM in Pakistan

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Design-Based Online Teacher Professional Development to Introduce Integration of STEM in Pakistan

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In today’s global society where innovations spread rapidly, the escalating focus on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has quickly intensified in the United States, East Asia and much of Western Europe. Our ever-changing, increasingly global society faces many multidisciplinary problems, and many of the solutions require the integration of multiple science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts. Thus, there is a critical need to explore the integration of STEM subjects in international education contexts. This dissertation study examined the exploration of integration of STEM in the unique context of Pakistan. This study used three-phase design-based methodological framework derived from McKenney and Reeves (2012) to explore the development of a STEM focused online teacher professional development (oTPD-STEM) and to identify the design features that facilitate teacher learning. The oTPD-STEM program was designed to facilitate eight Pakistani elementary school teachers’ exploration of the new idea of STEM integration through both practical and theoretical considerations. This design-based study employed inductive analysis (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) to analyze multiple data sources of interviews, STEM perception responses, reflective learning team conversations, pre-post surveys and artifacts produced in oTPD-STEM. Findings of this study are presented as: (1) design-based decisions for oTPD-STEM, and (2) evolution in understanding of STEM by sharing participant teachers’ STEM model for Pakistani context. This study advocates for the potential of school-wide oTPD for interdisciplinary collaboration through support for learner-centered practices.


University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. 2017. Major: Education, Curriculum and Instruction. Advisors: Bhaskar Upadhyay, Gillian Roehrig. 1 computer file (PDF); 284 pages.

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Anwar, Tasneem. (2017). Design-Based Online Teacher Professional Development to Introduce Integration of STEM in Pakistan. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

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