Allowable Axle Loads on Pavements

Thumbnail Image

View/Download File

Persistent link to this item

View Statistics

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Allowable Axle Loads on Pavements

Published Date



Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services Section




This report documents the development of a procedure to determine the structural adequacy and need of seasonal axle load restrictions for Minnesota low-volume roads. This procedure has been implemented into a new program, TONN2010. Since it is anticipated that the results of this study will be widely used by Mn/DOT, city, and county engineers, as well as consulting engineers involved in analysis of the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) data collected by the transportation agencies, an emphasis was made on development of a simple, easy to implement procedure. To simplify the procedure’s implementation, the number of inputs was minimized. TONN2010 utilizes pavement layer thicknesses, FWD deflection basins, air temperature of the previous day, pavement surface temperature at the time of testing, pavement location, and anticipated traffic. All the inputs required by TONN2010 can be easily obtained by the user. Using these inputs, TONN2010 proceeds to 1) backcalculate layer moduli using the backcalculation procedure developed in this study, 2) adjust the backcalculated moduli using MnPAVE temperature and seasonal adjustment factors, and 3) estimate pavement axle load capacity by mechanistic-empirical analysis. In addition to detailing TONN2010, the report further describes selection of the damage models, development of the backcalculation design procedure, determination of the critical structural responses, development of new structural rating indexes, and finally the calibration and validation of the proposed procedure.


Related to




Series/Report Number

Funding information

Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services Section

Isbn identifier

Doi identifier

Previously Published Citation

Suggested citation

Bly, Peter; Tompkins, Derek; Khazanovich, Lev. (2010). Allowable Axle Loads on Pavements. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

Content distributed via the University Digital Conservancy may be subject to additional license and use restrictions applied by the depositor. By using these files, users agree to the Terms of Use. Materials in the UDC may contain content that is disturbing and/or harmful. For more information, please see our statement on harmful content in digital repositories.