AHC Oral History Project

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In 1970, the University of Minnesota’s previously autonomous College of Pharmacy and School of Dentistry were reorganized, together with the Schools of Nursing, Medicine, and Public Health, and the University Hospitals, into a centrally organized and administered Academic Health Center (AHC). The university’s College of Veterinary Medicine was also closely aligned with the AHC at this time, becoming formally incorporated into the AHC in 1985.

The development of the AHC made possible the coordination and integration of the education and training of the health care professions and was part of a national trend which saw academic health centers emerge as the dominant institution in American health care in the last third of the 20th century. AHCs became not only the primary sites of health care education, but also critical sites of health sciences research and health care delivery.

The University of Minnesota’s Academic Health Center Oral History Project preserves the personal stories of key individuals who were involved with the formation of the university’s Academic Health Center, served in leadership roles, or have specific insights into the institution’s history. By bringing together a representative group of figures in the history of the University of Minnesota’s AHC, this project provides compelling documentation of recent developments in the history of American health care education, practice, and policy.

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Visit the website of the AHC Oral History Project at http://z.umn.edu/ahcoralhistory

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 93
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    Interview with Marilyn K. Speedie
    (University of Minnesota, 2019-07-31) Ruhrold, Lauren N.; Speedie, Marilyn K.
    Dr. Speedie begins part one of her interview by describing her early life and educational background. She reflects on her undergraduate education at Purdue University, discussing her early experiences working in community pharmacies and her exposure to laboratory research. She briefly discusses her time in graduate school and reflects on her return to Oregon following graduation. She discusses her move to Baltimore, as well as her becoming assistant professor and department head at the University of Maryland. Dr. Speedie then reflects on being recruited to the University of Minnesota. She discusses the appeal of an administrative position, as well as her ongoing interest in teaching and research. She reflects on the chaotic state of the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy upon her arrival, the mentorship she received, and the openness of the pharmacy profession to women. Dr. Speedie then discusses some of the College’s more famous research projects, including investigations into epilepsy, HIV, and opioids. She then details the founding of the Rural Health School and the impetus behind the Duluth expansion. She concludes by comparing revisions made to the College of Pharmacy curriculum in 1995 and 2013 and by reflecting on faculty responses to those changes. Dr. Speedie begins part two of her interview by offering some additional comments about curricular design and the contributions of specific people to that project. She then reflects on changes in pharmacy practice in the mid 2000s, describing the significance of medication therapy management (MTM), collaborative practice, and pharmaceutical care. She then discusses the changing status of the Pharm.D. degree. Dr. Speedie then reflects on the founding and vision behind the Doctor of Pharmacy Program for Practicing Pharmacists (DP4). She then describes the relationship between academic and practicing pharmacists and discusses Dr. Lawrence Weaver’s role in bridging these groups. She discusses the significance of the Center for Leading Health Care Change and the Academic Health Center (AHC). She briefly reflects on the difficulties involved with connecting the College of Pharmacy and Fairview Health Services and with securing physical space for the College. Dr. Speedie concludes by commenting on her position as the first female dean and on the future of pharmacy enrollments.
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    Interview with Donald L. Uden
    (University of Minnesota, 2019-10-14) Ruhrold, Lauren N.; Uden, Donald L.
    Dr. Uden begins his interview by discussing his childhood and high school experience in Coon Rapids, Minnesota. He then reflects on his coming to the University of Minnesota as an undergraduate, his early experiences with pharmacy practice, memorable classes, and his interaction with the medical school. He then describes the development of the Pharm.D. program and changes in the popular image of a pharmacist. He then discusses the significant relationships he formed with Dr. Lawrence Weaver and with peers through the professional fraternity Kappa Psi. He then reflects on his post-graduate work at the St. Paul-Ramsey Medical Center, his increasing involvement with pharmacokinetics, and his growing interest in clinical research. Dr. Uden then describes his time at Minneapolis Children’s Medical Center, his role there as Director of Pharmacy, and his work in pediatric and emergency care. Dr. Uden then discusses his return to the University of Minnesota as a faculty member and reflects on his experience with tenure policies and procedures. He then discusses the growth of clinical pharmacy and the pharmaceutical care movement. He then describes the Pharmacy Rural Education Program (PREP), as well as the development of the Rural Health School and his role as interim director. He then reflects on the deanship of Gilbert Banker, the state of the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy in the 1990s, and the dynamic between Rho Chi and Lo Chi. Dr. Uden concludes by discussing the Doctor of Pharmacy Program for Practicing Pharmacists (DP4) and reflecting on his experience as Associate Dean of Students.
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    Interview with Albert I. Wertheimer
    (University of Minnesota, 2019-10-22) Ruhrold, Lauren N.; Wertheimer, Albert I.
    Dr. Wertheimer begins his interview by describing his early life and educational background. He reflects on his undergraduate education at the University of Buffalo and on his choice to pursue a career in pharmacy. He discusses his interest in marketing and his pursuit of an M.B.A. at Buffalo. Dr. Wertheimer then discusses his decision to pursue a Ph.D. in pharmacy at Purdue University. He describes his time working as a hospital pharmacist in Lafayette, Indiana and as a community pharmacist in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Wertheimer discusses his path post-graduation, reflecting on his time as assistant professor at SUNY Buffalo and on his work with the Social Security Administration. He then describes the circumstances surrounding his move to the University of Minnesota and his attraction to the Twin Cities. Dr. Wertheimer reflects on his early years in the College of Pharmacy, the mentorship of Dean Lawrence Weaver, the significance of the Academic Health Center (AHC), and the emergence of the Pharm.D. degree. He then discusses the history of the Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy describing its origin and development, ensuing turf battles, as well as notable faculty and alumni. He also discusses the founding and development of the Kellogg program. Dr. Wertheimer reflects on the growth of clinical pharmacy, shifts in promotion and tenure procedures, and changes to the pharmacy curriculum. He then discusses his experience as a community pharmacy owner, as well as changes in the interaction between pharmacists and patients. He also reflects on his roles as Vice President for First Health Services Corporation and as Director of Outcomes Research and Management for Merck and Company. Dr. Wertheimer then discusses changes in the leadership of the UMN College of Pharmacy and his activities as director of graduate studies. He describes his departure from UMN and reflects on how the College of Pharmacy compares to other educational institutions. He concludes by commenting on more recent developments in the college and by reflecting on his relationship with Dean Lawrence Weaver.
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    Interview with James Boulger
    (University of Minnesota, 2016) Boulger, James; Tobbell, Dominique
    James Boulger begins the interview discussing his educational background. He briefly discusses his first academic job at the new Medical College of Ohio at Toledo in the late 1960s and his decision to move to the University of Minnesota-Duluth (UM-D) Medical School in the early 1970s. Boulger describes the work done to get the school ready for the first class of students; the experiences of the charter class; and the experiences of the faculty—including the challenges they encountered—running the medical school in its first few years. He discusses the different expectations and priorities of the UM-Twin Cities Medical School and its faculty compared to the expectations and priorities of the UM-D Medical School and the state’s rural clinicians and legislators. Boulger discusses the move on the UM-D campus to unionize the faculty; the establishment of the first curriculum and the Department of Family Medicine at UM-D Medical School; various UM-D Medical School deans; the decision by the UM-D Medical School to use community physicians as clinical faculty; and the responsibility of a land-grant university to the people of Minnesota. Next, Boulger discusses Robert Carter’s departure as first dean of UM-D Medical School, the appointment of Arthur Aufderheide as interim dean, John LaBree as dean, and Boulger’s term as interim dean. Boulger describes the strategies that were used to recruit students committed to family medicine and rural practice and the strategies used to recruit Native American students to UM-D Medical School; and reflects on the changes in family medicine in rural and urban practice settings over the past forty years, particularly in terms of what procedures family medicine physicians are performing. Boulger goes on to discuss the relationship between UM-D Medical School and the Duluth area hospitals—Miller-Dwan Hospital, Saint Mary’s Hospital, and Saint Luke’s Hospital—and the establishment of the graduate medical education at these hospitals; the relationship of the medical school to the rest of the UM-D campus; and how the UM-D Medical School faculty balance their teaching, research, and service responsibilities and expectations and whether the balance of those expectations changed once the Duluth and Twin Cities campuses merged. Next Boulger discusses his second two tenures as interim dean. During his second stint, Boulger describes dealing with difficult retrenchments, while during his third stint, he describes trying to marshal support to convert UM-D to a four-year medical school. Boulger next discusses the establishment of the Center for Rural Mental Health Studies, telemental health, and telemedicine; and the Rural Medical Scholars Program.
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    Interview with David Born
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-12-10) Born, David O.; Klaffke, Lauren E.
    Dr. David Born begins part one of his interview by describing his educational background and influences on his career trajectory. He then discusses the beginning of his career at the University of Minnesota in the Division of Health Ecology, covering the following topics: curriculum changes, community relations, career guidance, placement programs, and workforce issues. In part two of his interview, Dr. David Born describes how he came to be Department Head for American Indian Studies and his goals for the program. He then reviews his work in various leadership roles within the Dental School and in committee work for the University. Dr. Born also reflects on the following topics: the threatened closure of the School of Dentistry; retrenchment; the Dental School as part of the Academic Health Center (AHC); Lyle French’s tenure as Vice President of the Health Sciences; Dr. Erwin Schaeffer’s tenure as Dean of the Dental School; changes in the practice of dentistry; Dr. Richard Oliver’s tenure as Dean; efforts to recruit minority students to the Dental School; changes in the composition of the dental workforce; Dr. Richard Elzay’s tenure as Dean; and the work of other leaders in the Dental School and the AHC. He concludes with final reflections on mentorship and his work in the Dental School.
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    Interview with Frank Cerra
    (University of Minnesota, 2014-07-31) Cerra, Frank B.; Tobbell, Dominique
    Dr. Frank Cerra begins part one of his interview by describing his undergraduate education at SUNY Binghamton, his medical education at Northwestern University Medical School, and his residency at SUNY Buffalo. He then describes his recruitment to the University of Minnesota, his early goals, and his growing administrative roles. He describes the leadership implications of investigations into Antilymphocyte Globulin (ALG) on the Medical School and the merging of University Hospital with Fairview Health Services. He then discusses the following topics: his interest in surgery; the culture of the University of Minnesota’s Department of Surgery; his work with the pharmaceutical industry and the College of Pharmacy; his work developing a critical care program at the University; and his relationships with the hospital directors, hospital nursing, and the School of Nursing. In part of two his interview, Dr. Cerra intersperses reflections on finances and relations among different levels of administration in the University, the AHC, and University Hospital. He also discusses the following topics: his relationship with Neal Gault; strategic and long-range planning; the goals of the AHC; the formation of University of Minnesota Physicians; the establishment of the Biomedical Ethics Center (later the Center for Bioethics) and the Masonic Cancer Center; the investigations into ALG and Dr. John Najarian; the establishment of the Center for Drug Design; William Brody as Provost of the AHC and issues surrounding faculty tenure; and the establishment of the Institute for Health Informatics. In part three of his interview, Dr. Cerra expands on the decision to merge University Hospital with Fairview Health Services, particularly focusing on logistics, culture, and reception. He also discusses failed attempts to create a unified children’s hospital in the Twin Cities. He then reflects on the following topics: the major challenges and achievements of his tenure as senior vice president; the merging of the positions of Senior Vice President of Health Sciences and Dean of the Medical School; the creation of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute and the Biomedical Discovery District; and the medical device industry in Minnesota. He concludes by describing the University of Minnesota and Mayo Clinic partnership in research.
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    Interview with Robert Vince
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-08-06) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Vince, Robert
    Dr. Robert Vince begins his interview by describing his interest in science and medicine generally, his graduate research, and how he came to be professor at the University of Minnesota in the College of Pharmacy. In relation to his research while in the College, Dr. Vince discusses the following: his research on antibiotics and drugs with anticancer activity; the transition between exploring natural compounds and the creation of synthetic compounds within medicinal chemistry; issues he encountered in research attribution; his work on anti-herpes drugs; patenting issues in academia and the passage of the Bayh- Dole Act; and compound testing for activity against the AIDS virus. He then reflects on the development of the Center for Drug Design and developments within the Center. Discussing the history of the School of Pharmacy and the AHC more broadly, Dr. Vince covers the following topics: Lawrence Weaver’s tenure as dean; the clinical emphasis in the College of Pharmacy and the creation of the PharmD program; teaching and continuing education; the role of the PharmD in medicine; Gilbert Banker’s tenure as dean; the growth of the College of Pharmacy; the position of the Center for Drug Design within the AHC; and the merging of the positions of vice president of the AHC with dean of the Medical School. Dr. Vince concludes his interview with his recollections of former President George W. Bush’s visit to the University in July of 2002.
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    Interview with Lynda Ellis
    (University of Minnesota, 2014-10-21) Ellis, Lynda; Tobbell, Dominique
    Lynda Ellis begins by discussing her educational background and her arrival at the University of Minnesota. She describes her first years in the Division of Health Computer Sciences, the atmosphere of the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, and her colleagues in the Department. She then discusses her initial research in computer-based patient education; the graduate program in Biometry and Health Information Systems; and her year of leave at 3M. Dr. Ellis next describes her collaborative work with Larry Wackett and the development of the University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database, and then returns to the subject of her work on computer-based patient education. She discusses the National Library of Medicine Training Grant program; the development of the Health Sciences Instructional Computing Laboratory; the important role of the Biomedical Library in the history of health informatics at the University; the leadership styles of Eugene Ackerman and Laël Gatewood; and the number of women in health informatics.
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    Interview with Philip Portoghese
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-06-14) Tobbell, Dominique A.; Portoghese, Philip
    Dr. Portoghese begins part one of his interview with a review of his education at Columbia University and then the University of Maryland. He briefly discusses his military service in the Korean War, his Master’s work at Columbia, and then his move to the University of Wisconsin-Madison for doctoral work on cancer research. He then relates his recruitment to the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Minnesota in 1961 and his changing research interests in analgesic receptors. Dr. Portoghese then discusses his childhood interest in chemistry, relating several personal anecdotes, and how this led to his interest in pharmacy. He shares his recollections of the College of Pharmacy when he first arrived at the University in 1961, Lawrence Weaver’s tenure as dean, changes in the field of medicinal chemistry, and changes in the structure of the Department of Medicinal Chemistry over the course of his career at the University. In part two of his interview, Dr. Portoghese offers his impressions of the creation of the Academic Health Center and the College of Pharmacy’s move to Weaver-Densford Hall. He discusses relations between the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and the Pharmacology Department, changes in concepts of intellectual property at the University, Dr. Robert Vince’s development of Ziagen, his own research on analgesic receptors, his continuous funding by the NIH, corporate interest in biochemical mechanisms, his development of different compounds as research tools, and industry support for drug research. He then discusses his time as chair of the Department of Medicinal Chemistry, administrative support for the Department, and his time as editor of the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. He ends his interview with the major technological innovations that have revolutionized the way research in medicinal chemistry is performed.
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    Interview with Eli Coleman
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-07-09) Vitulli, Eli; Coleman, Eli
    Dr. Eli Coleman begins his interview by describing his early life, his education, and his move to the University of Minnesota and the Program in Human Sexuality (PHS). He reflects on his first years in the program, its transition into Family Medicine, Dr. Ed Ciracy’s impact on the PHS, and the Sexuality Attitude Reassessment seminar. He also discusses the following: the role of churches and seminaries in the PHS; the PHS curriculum and teaching; Don Hoag and Sharon Satterfield as directors of PHS; PHS contributions to HIV-AIDS behavioral research; funding issues; politics surrounding the PHS; John Kelly’s work as director; and Dr. William Jacott’s leadership of the Department of Family Medicine. Dr. Coleman the reviews his own time as head of the PHS, including the economic problems the Program faced. He describes the development of and changes to the sex offender treatment program, disability work in the PHS, and the Program’s work on transgender issues and his work on the Gender Committee. He concludes with the relationship between the World Professional Association for Transgender Health and the PHS.
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    Interview with Norrie Thomas
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-11-21) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Thomas, Norrie
    Norrie Thomas was born in Detroit, Michigan but grew up in Rochester, Minnesota. She completed two years at a junior college in Rochester and transferred to the University of Minnesota in 1971. She earned her bachelor’s in pharmacy in 1976. She worked as a staff pharmacist at Saint Mary’s Hospital and the Mayo Clinic before returning to the University of Minnesota as a graduate student. She earned her master’s and doctorate in pharmacy administration in 1980 and 1983, respectively. She made important strides in developing the field of pharmacy benefit management (PBM) over the course of her career, co-founding one of the first PBM companies, Clinical Pharmacy Advantage, in 1990. Over the course of her career, Dr. Thomas has held senior management positions at all of the following companies: MedCenters Health Plans, Aetna, McKesson, PCS, Eli Lilly, St. Jude Medical, Schering-Plough, and Magellan Health Services. She also helped establish the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. From 2009 to 2010, Dr. Thomas served as an adjunct professor at the University, coordinating Dialogues in Managed Care Pharmacy Leadership, which sought to highlight leadership within the pharmacy profession. She currently serves president and managing director of Manchester Square Group.
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    Interview with Barbara Leonard
    (University of Minnesota, 2011-10-20) Tobbell, Dominique A.; Leonard, Barbara
    Dr. Barbara Leonard begins her interview by discussing her education and her interest in public health nursing. In particular, she describes her early experiences with vaccination and her clinical rotations in college. She then reflects on her work toward a master’s degree in public health at the University of Minnesota, including her coursework, mentors, the creation of the Public Health Nurse Practitioner Program, and the changes to and restructuring of nursing programs in the School of Public Health. She also discusses the following: the impact of the Rajender Consent Decree, relations between the School of Public Health and the School of Nursing; curriculum reform within the School of Nursing; the positioning of nursing programs within the School of Public Health; the favorable economic position of the health sciences in the 1960s and 1970s; and knowledge and skills-based competition among healthcare professionals. The interview then turns toward the following topics: Lee Stauffer as dean of the School of Public Health; transitions in the scope of public health regarding prevention and healthcare delivery; relations among divisions within the School of Public Health; the leadership of Alma Sparrow; her pursuit of a Ph.D. in Healthcare Administration; and her interests in maternal and child health and particularly children with chronic disease.
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    Interview with Michael Till
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-12-19) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Till, Michael
    Dr. Michael Till begins his interview by describing the trajectory of his education and early career, including his experiences in: the Navy; at the University of Iowa; at Eastman Dental Center in Stockholm, Sweden; at the Royal Dental College in Aarhus, Denmark; at the Arabian America Oil Company (ARAMCO); with Operation Crossroads in Dahomey, West Africa; and at the University of Pittsburgh. He then discusses his recruitment to the University of Minnesota and the building of the new Dental School facilities in 1969 and 1970. He describes his responsibilities as chairman of Pediatric Dentistry, his work to initiate the International Exchange Program, and his time as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow. Focusing on the Dental School, he covers the following topics: the culture of the dental school; student unrest in the 1960s; the relationship between dentistry and dental hygiene within the school; debates regarding manpower within dentistry; the Mobile Dental Clinic and the Hibbing Dental Program; the relationship between the School of Dentistry and University Hospital; the role of Pediatric Dentistry in the bone marrow transplant program; state and federal support for the School; the School’s efforts around water fluoridation; and the creation of the Academic Health Center (AHC) and the inclusion of the Dental School within the AHC. Dr. Till also describes Dr. Lyle French’s tenure as vice president of the AHC; the tenures of Drs. Erwin Schaeffer, Richard Oliver as deans of the School; retrenchment, strategic planning, and the reorganization of the school; the No Cavity Clinic; the changing demographics of dentistry; the potential for a two-track tenure system; his work in the creation of the Ectoderma Dysplasia Center; the pediatric dental program at Hennepin County Medical Center; the tenure of Dr. Richard Elzay as dean; and the threatened closure of the Dental School. He concludes with a discussion of his relationships with the vice presidents of the AHC, his time as dean, and his work with Project HOPE.
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    Interview with Alfred Michael
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-04-25) Tobbell, Dominique A.; Michael, Alfred F.
    Dr. Alfred Michael begins his interview with a reflection on his childhood and education in Philadelphia and his interests in medicine and pediatrics. He describes his decision to move to the University of Minnesota in order to work with Dr. Robert A. Good. He then discusses all of the following in relation to his research: working with Robert Vernier; changes in technology and methodology related to testing the kidney; his graduate work in biochemistry; specialization in medical research; work on transplantation and dialysis with John Najarian and Carl Kjellstrand; kidney research at the University; the expansion of and coverage for dialysis; and his time in Copenhagen. Dr. Michael then describes Dr. John Anderson’s tenure as department chair and his own tenure as dean, during which he made efforts to create a major children’s hospital facility in combination with the University. He also reflects on the larger context of changes in healthcare structures in the period, particularly the emergence of HMOs and Minnesota’s role in the development of HMOs, and town/gown relations in the Twin Cities. Dr. Michael then discusses Robert Howard and David Brown’s tenures as dean of the Medical School and issues with private practice and finances at the University. Turning to administrative matters, Dr. Michael describes his work with Win Wallin; William Brody’s tenure as provost of the AHC; and the growth of the administrative power of the AHC. He then elaborates on the creation of University of Minnesota Clinical Associates and University of Minnesota Physicians; the sale of University Hospital to Fairview; divisions of responsibility and administration within the AHC; relations between different schools in the AHC; and the investigation of John Najarian in connection with Antilymphocyte Globulin (ALG). He concludes with reflections on the balance of research, teaching, and clinical work; his moves into administrative positions; his work on various boards; his work with the Legislature; and the Medical School’s standing.
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    Interview with Seymour H. Levitt
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-04-04) Tobbell, Dominique A.; Levitt, Seymour H.
    Levitt begins by describing his childhood and his decision to study medicine. He describes his time in the military. He discusses the choice to do two residencies (radiology and internal medicine) in San Francisco. He describes the changes that have occurred in therapeutic radiology over the course of his career. He discusses his tenure at other universities and the decision to come to the University of Minnesota to build the therapeutic radiology department. He describes using linear accelerators in place of cobalt machines at the University of Minnesota. He discusses the influence of foreign physicians on American radiation therapy and the conflicts among physicians treating people with cancers. He also discusses the culture of the medical school. He describes his involvement with the Bone Marrow Transplant Program and the Masonic Cancer Center. He discusses the implications of the ALG litigation on the Medical School and the University of Minnesota. He also discusses the sale of the University Hospital to Fairview Health Systems. He concludes with the impact of changing imaging technologies on his field.
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    Interview with Harry Hogenkamp
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-08-27) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Hogenkamp, Henricus "Harry" P. C.
    Dr. Henricus Hogenkamp begins his interview by describing his early life in the Netherlands and his immigration to Canada. He then discusses his decision to attend the University of British Columbia and the University of California at Berkley, his work at the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, and his time at the University of Iowa. Dr. Hogenkamp goes on to describe his recruitment to the University of Minnesota as head of the Department of Biochemistry in the Medical School, his work with B-12, teaching in the AHC, funding within the AHC, and relations with other schools in the health sciences and in the University. He also reflects on the leadership of Neal Gault and David Brown as deans of the Medical School, his committee work, his time on journal editorial boards, research he conducted in Germany through the Humboldt Foundation, and the longer history of B-12. He concludes with a discussion of the changes in relations and structure of the Department of Biochemistry in the Medical School and the Department of Biochemistry in the College of Biological Sciences.
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    Interview with Sally Howard
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-10-21) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Howard, Sarah "Sally"
    Sally Howard begins her interview with an overview of her early life and career. She then provides greater detail about her time at the YWCA and her work at Abbott Hospital as well as some of the larger trends in hospitals and medicine during her time there. Ms. Howard describes how she became part of the city council and the accomplishments of the council during her terms of service. Turning to her time at the University, she discusses the following topics: applying to the public relations position in the AHC; the development of a public relations program specifically for the AHC; the creation of a health talk show; Dr. John Najarian’s transplant work; the threatened closure of the Dental School and College of Veterinary Medicine; publicity for the University Hospital renovations; and the legal issues surrounding antilymphocyte globulin (ALG). She concludes by describing the tenures of Neal Vanselow, Cherie Perlmutter, Robert Anderson, and William Brody as vice presidents of the AHC.
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    Interview with Randall D. Seifert
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-08-05) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Seifert, Randall D.
    Dr. Randall Seifert begins his interview by describing his early life and education, including his pursuit of a Pharm.D. and a postdoc in pharmacokinetics at the University of Minnesota. He then discusses his work in North Dakota. He reflects on changing trends in pharmacy hospital practice, ways to build sustainable clinical practices, and problems pharmacists face in smaller communities. He then describes the various positions he held in Southern California, particularly his work for California Clinical Trials and Health Net. He then describes his return to the University of Minnesota in 2005, including his work on the implementation of medication therapy management benefits for the City of Duluth and it adoption by U-Plan at the University of Minnesota. He then discusses the following topics: relationships between the Twin Cities and Duluth campuses of the College of Pharmacy; current trends in pharmacy education; efforts to recruit Native American students; his work with Marilyn Speedie and her leadership as dean; Frank Cerra’s leadership as vice president of the Academic Health Center; relations between medical and pharmacy students at UMN Duluth; collaborations between schools and colleges in the health sciences; and his work with the State Legislature. He concludes with his ideas for interprofessional communication in education.
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    Interview with Robert J. Cipolle
    (University of Minnesota, 2012-06-12) Tobbell, Dominique A.; Cipolle, Robert J.
    Dr. Robert Cipolle begins his interview by briefly discusses his early life and education. He describes his time in the relatively new Pharm.D. at the University of Minnesota, his residency in Twin Cities area hospitals, and how the atmosphere of acceptance of the clinical pharmacy in Minnesota differed from areas. Dr. Cipolle then discusses the following topics regarding the changing culture surrounding pharmacy and pharmaceuticals: his move to University Hospital to support the growth of the clinical pharmacy program there; running the hospital pharmacy at Saint Paul-Ramsey; conflicts within the pharmacy therapeutics committee; equivalence, substitution, and prescriptive power issues in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s; the creation of the Peters Institute of Pharmaceutical Care; the practice of medication therapy management (MTM); the development of a billing system for clinical pharmacy; the training of clinical pharmacists as opposed to pharmacists working in dispensaries; and the introduction of the patient package insert. Following this discussion of larger trends, Dr. Cipolle reflects on his time in administration in the College of Pharmacy, including his time as associate dean under Gilbert Banker, changing the curriculum within the College, and his time as interim dean. He then describes the following: the relationship between the College and the Department of Pharmacology in the Medical School; the conversion to an all Pharm.D. program; the creation of the pharmacy program in Duluth; relations between the College and the basic sciences; failed discussions regarding the creation of a two-year pharmacy technician program; poison control and collaborations with the Medical and Nursing Schools; budget issues and long-range planning; funding from pharmaceutical companies; his time chairing the Conflict of Interest Committee; litigation surrounding the sale of Antilymphocyte Globulin (ALG); the creation of Medication Management Systems, Inc. Dr. Cipolle concludes with a reflection on changing demographics within pharmacy, the changing culture of pharmacy, and the naming of Unit F.
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    Interview with Russell V. Luepker
    (University of Minnesota, 2013-09-11) Klaffke, Lauren E.; Luepker, Russell V.
    Dr. Russell Luepker begins his interview by reflecting on his early life and education. He then describes his medical education and the travel and training programs in which he participated at the University of Rochester, specifically his time in Nigeria and Sweden. He also discusses his time in the U.S. Public Health Service in Baltimore, MD, his internship in San Diego, CA, and his recruitment to the University of Minnesota. Dr. Luepker reviews his experience applying for and executing the Minnesota Heart Health Program grant; the culture at the University in comparison to other institutions where he’d studied and worked; and Ancel Keys work in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and the merging of the Laboratory with the Division of Epidemiology. He then gives his perspective on retrenchments as a result of his time as chairman of the University Senate Finance and Planning Committee and the impact of the Rajender Consent Decree. Dr. Luepker also describes the following: his research programs; interventional and observational epidemiology in the School; public health as an activist profession; collaborations with the Medical School; the influence of the Academic Health Center on collaboration; his views on leadership in the AHC; the tenures of the deans of the School of Public Health; and his work with the regents. He concludes his interview by discussing the combining of the roles of Medical School dean and vice president of the AHC and collaboration within the AHC.