Saracatinib Synergizes With Enzalutamide In Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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Saracatinib Synergizes With Enzalutamide In Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most diagnosed non-skin cancer amongst the American male population. Treatment for localized prostate cancer consists of androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs), which typically inhibit androgen production and the androgen receptor (AR). Though initially effective, a subset of patients will develop resistance to ADTs and the tumors will transition to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Second generation hormonal therapies such as abiraterone acetate and particularly enzalutamide, which inhibits AR full-length (AR-FL), are typically given to men with CRPC. However, these treatments are not curative and typically prolong survival only by a few months. Several resistance mechanisms contribute to this lack of efficacy such as the emergence of AR mutations, AR amplification, lineage plasticity, AR splice variants (AR-Vs) and increased kinase signaling. Having identified SRC kinase as a key tyrosine kinase enriched in CRPC patient tumors from our previous work, we evaluated whether inhibition of SRC kinase synergizes with enzalutamide or chemotherapy in several prostate cancer cell lines expressing variable AR isoforms. We observed robust synergy between the SRC kinase inhibitor, saracatinib, and enzalutamide, in the AR-FL+/AR-V+ CRPC cell lines, LNCaP95 and 22Rv1. We also observed that saracatinib significantly decreased AR Y534 phosphorylation, a key SRC kinase substrate residue, on AR-FL and AR-Vs, along with the AR regulome, supporting key mechanisms of synergy with enzalutamide. Lastly, we also found that the saracatinib-enzalutamide combination reduced DNA replication compared to the saracatinib-docetaxel combination, resulting in marked increased apoptosis. By elucidating this combination strategy, we provide pre-clinical data that suggests combining SRC kinase inhibitors with enzalutamide in select patients that express both AR-FL and AR-Vs.



University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. June 2023. Major: Pharmacology. Advisor: Justin Drake. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 110 pages.

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White, Ralph. (2023). Saracatinib Synergizes With Enzalutamide In Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

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