Circuit Design Techniques For Wideband Phased Arrays

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Circuit Design Techniques For Wideband Phased Arrays

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This dissertation focuses on beam steering in wideband phased arrays and phase noise modeling in injection locked oscillators. Two different solutions, one in frequency and one in time, have been proposed to minimize beam squinting in phased arrays. Additionally, a differential current reuse frequency doubler for area and power savings has been proposed. Silicon measurement results are provided for the frequency domain solution (IBM 65nm RF CMOS), injection locked oscillator model verification (IBM 130nm RF-CMOS) and frequency doubler (IBM 65nm RF CMOS), while post extraction simulation results are provided for the time domain phased array solution (the chip is currently under fabrication, TSMC 65nm RF CMOS). In the frequency domain solution, a 4-point passive analog FFT based frequency tunable filter is used to channelize an incoming wideband signal into multiple narrowband signals, which are then processed through independent phase shifters. A two channel prototype has been developed at 8GHz RF frequency. Three discrete phase shifts (0 & +/- 90 degrees) are implemented through differential I-Q swapping with appropriate polarity. A minimum null-depth of 19dB while a maximum null-depth of 27dB is measured. In the time domain solution, a discrete time approach is undertaken with signals getting sampled in order of their arrival times. A two-channel prototype for a 2GHz instantaneous RF bandwidth (7GHz-9GHz) has been designed. A QVCO generates quadrature LO signals at 8GHz which are phase shifted through a 5-bit (2 extra bits from differential I-Q swapping with appropriate polarity) cartesian combiner. Baseband sampling clocks are generated from phase shifted LOs through a CMOS divide by 4 with independent resets. The design achieves an average time delay of 4.53ps with 31.5mW of power consumption (per channel, buffers excluded). An injection locked oscillator has been analyzed in s-domain using Paciorek's time domain transient equations. The simplified analysis leads to a phase noise model identical to that of a type-I PLL. The model is equally applicable to injection locked dividers and multipliers and has been extended to cover all injection locking scenarios. The model has been verified against a discrete 57MHz Colpitt's ILO, a 6.5GHz ILFD and a 24GHz ILFM with excellent matching between the model and measurements. Additionally, a differential current reuse frequency doubler, for frequency outputs between 7GHz to 14GHz, design has been developed to reduce passive area and dc power dissipation. A 3-bit capacitive tuning along with a tail current source is used to better conversion efficiency. The doubler shows FOM$_{T}$ values between 191dBc/Hz to 209dBc/Hz when driven by a 0.7GHz to 5.8GHz wide tuning VCO with a phase noise that ranges from -114dBc/Hz to -112dBc/Hz over the same bandwidth.


University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation.June 2015. Major: Electrical Engineering. Advisor: Ramesh Harjani. 1 computer file (PDF); xii, 143 pages.

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Kalia, Sachin. (2015). Circuit Design Techniques For Wideband Phased Arrays. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

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