Emergence of indigenous gangs in the Upper Midwest: an inquiry into the lives of gang-involved youth.

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Emergence of indigenous gangs in the Upper Midwest: an inquiry into the lives of gang-involved youth.

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2011-06

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The current study seeks to examine the empirical correlates of historical trauma and gang awareness and involvement. These correlates emanate from historical trauma and are compounded by present day struggles and include: attitudes toward school, parental warmth and support, parental monitoring, substance use, and cultural loss. The data from this project is from an 8-year lagged sequential study with the first wave beginning in 2002 which focuses on four American Indian reservations in the Northern Midwest and four reserves in Canada. The sample for this analysis consists of 695 children aged 11 to 15 years old on American reservations and Canadian First Nation Reserves. The sample contains 350 adolescent males and 345 adolescent females. Results show that gender and parental warmth and support have no effect on gang involvement and awareness. Age, location, attitudes toward school, parental monitoring, substance use, and cultural loss were correlated with gang involvement and awareness.

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University of Minnesota M.A. thesis. June 2011. Major: Criminology. Advisor: Melissa Walls, Ph.D.. 1 computer file (PDF); iii, 40 pages.

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Feldmeier, Jenna Kathleen. (2011). Emergence of indigenous gangs in the Upper Midwest: an inquiry into the lives of gang-involved youth.. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy, https://hdl.handle.net/11299/113888.

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