Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health

Thumbnail Image

Persistent link to this item

View Statistics

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health

Published Date



Public Library of Science




Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV–host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.



Related to




Series/Report Number

Funding information

Isbn identifier

Doi identifier


Previously Published Citation

Chen, Yan Ping, Pettis, Jeffery S, Corona, Miguel, Chen, Wei Ping, Li, Cong Jun, Spivak, Marla, . . . Schneider, David S. (2014). Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Implications for Honey Bee Health (The Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus). 10(7), E1004261.

Suggested citation

Chen, Yan Ping; Pettis, Jeffery S; Corona, Miguel; Chen, Wei Ping; Li, Cong Jun; Spivak, Marla; Visscher, P. Kirk; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Boncristiani, Humberto; Zhao, Yan; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Delaplane, Keith; Solter, Leellen; Drummond, Francis; Kramer, Matthew; Lipkin, W. Ian; Palacios, Gustavo; Hamilton, Michele C; Smith, Barton; Huang, Shao Kang; Zheng, Huo Qing; Li, Ji Lian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Ai Fen; Wu, Li You; Zhou, Ji Zhong; Lee, Myeong-L; Teixeira, Erica W; Li, Zhi Guo; Evans, Jay D; Schneider, David S. (2014). Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy, 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004261.

Content distributed via the University Digital Conservancy may be subject to additional license and use restrictions applied by the depositor. By using these files, users agree to the Terms of Use. Materials in the UDC may contain content that is disturbing and/or harmful. For more information, please see our statement on harmful content in digital repositories.