Circuit Techniques for Multiple and Wideband Beamforming

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Circuit Techniques for Multiple and Wideband Beamforming

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This thesis presents different architectures with regard to multiple beamforming and wideband phased array transceiver. Three different designs are implemented in TSMC 65nm RF CMOS to demonstrate different solutions. The design in this thesis have included major RF blocks in state-of-art wireless transceiver: RF receiver, local oscillator, and RF transmitter. First, a RF/analog FFT based four-channel four-beam receiver with progressive partial spatial ltering is proposed. This architecture is particularly well suited for MIMO systems where multiple beams are used to increase throughput. Like the FFT, the proposed architecture reuses computations for multi-beam systems. In particular, the proposed architecture redistributes the computations so as to maximize the reuse of the structure that already exist in a receiver chain. In many fashions the architecture is quite similar to a Butler matrix but unlike the Butler matrix it does not use large passive components at RF. Further, we exploit the normally occurring quadrature down-conversion process to implement the tap weights. In comparison to traditional MIMO architectures, that effectively duplicate each path, the distributed computations of this architecture provide partial spatial ltering before the final stage, improving interference rejection for the blocks between the LNA and the ADC. Additionally, because of the spatial ltering prior to the ADC, a single interferer only jams a single beam allowing for continued operation though at a lower combined throughput. The four-beam receiver core prototype in 65nm CMOS implements the basic FFT based architecture but does not include an LNA or extensive IF stages. This four-channel design consumes 56mW power and occupies an active area of 0:65mm2 excluding pads and test circuits. Second, a wideband phased array receiver architecture with simultaneous spectral and spatial filtering by sub-harmonic injection oscillators is presented. The design avoids using expensive delay elements by many conventional wideband phased array. Different from prior art of channelization which cannot solve beam-squinting issue among the sub-channels, we use sub-harmonic injection locking scheme, which make the center frequencies of all sub-channels point to the same spatial direction to overcome beam-squinting issue. The low frequency, low power and narrowband phase shifters are placed at LO in comparison to conventional way of placing delay elements or phase shifters in the signal path. This avoids receiver performance degradation from delay elements or phase shifters. The simultaneous spectral and spatial ltering dictates less ADC dynamic range requirement and further reduces power. The injection locking scheme reduces the phase noise contribution from the oscillators. The two-band prototype design realized in 65nm GP CMOS is centered at 9GHz, provides 4GHz instantaneous bandwidth, reduces beam-squinting by half, consumes 31.75mW/antenna and occupies 2.7mm2 of chip area. In the third work, a steerable RF/analog FFT based four-beam transmitter architecture is presented. This work is based on the idea of FFT based multiple beamforming in 1st work, but extended to the transmitter and make the all beams steerable. Due to the reciprocity between receiver and transmitter, decimation-in-frequency (DIF) FFT is utilized in the transmitter. All the beams are steered simultaneously by front-end phase shifters, while keep each of the beams is independent of the others. The steerability of FFT based multiple beamforming scheme makes this proposed prototype could tackle more complicated portable wireless environment. The first and second proposed architecture have been silicon veried, and the design of the third has been finished and ready for tapeout.



University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation.June 2018. Major: Electrical Engineering. Advisor: Ramesh Harjani. 1 computer file (PDF); x, 102 pages.

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Meng, Qingrui. (2018). Circuit Techniques for Multiple and Wideband Beamforming. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

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