Creating shared value (CSV) is defined as “policies and operating practices that enhance the competitiveness of a company while simultaneously advancing the economic and social conditions in the communities in which it operates” (Porter & Kramer, 2011, p. 66). Because of its potential in creating social and economic outcomes simultaneously, CSV has been adopted by a number of major corporations such as IBM and Nestle. Despite the preliminary evidence indicating the presumed salience of CSV in improving sport organizations’ competitiveness (Hills, Walker, & Barry, 2019; Walker & Hills, 2017), research on CSV in sport settings is sparse. Moreover, there lacks a comprehensive framework to depict the mechanism of how customers are influenced by an organization’s CSV performance (Dembek, Singh, & Bhakoo, 2016). The purpose of this dissertation is to examine how customers’ intention of buying products of a certain sport brand is increased by promoting their sport participation through a sport organization’s CSV. Because CSV is relatively a new concept in the field of sport management, this study first illustrated how CSV was implemented in sport using a specific case––Nike+ Run Club of Shanghai (NRCSH). The theoretical framework was then established based on previous research on autonomy-supportive coaching behavior and self-congruity theory (Alfermann & Stoll, 2000; Aşçı, 2003; Hosany & Martin, 2012). Specifically, it proposed that customers’ running participation would increase when they perceive autonomy-supportive behaviors, including caring, praising, and role modeling, from the NRCSH employees. The increased running participation, in turn, was expected to influence the customers’ sport self-concept as runner. The framework further hypothesized that sport self-concept as runner and brand-extension fit both had a positive association with brand-self congruity. In particular, the brand-extension fit was posited to moderate the relationship between sport self-concept as runner and brand-self congruity. The brand-self congruity then was postulated to promote customers’ purchase intention of a certain brand. Moreover, running participation was hypothesized to have a direct association, as well as an indirect association through the mediation of sport self-concept as runner and brand-self congruity, with purchase intention. To test the hypotheses, this dissertation collected data from registered customers of the NRCSH who participated in the program within the three months prior to the data collection. A time-lagged two-wave design was applied, in which customers’ perception of caring, praising, and role modeling, and running participation were measured at Time 1 and sport self-concept as runner, brand-extension fit, brand-self congruity, and purchase intention were measured at Time 2. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM) analysis was employed to analyze the data (N = 311). Results of the PLS–SEM indicated that caring was the only significant positive intervention that promoted customers’ running participation. The increased running participation had a positive association with sport self-concept as runner. The sport self-concept as runner and brand-extension fit were both significant determinants of brand-self congruity, which then led to the enhancement of purchase intention. A test of the relationship between running participation and purchase intention revealed that increased running participation promote one’s intention of purchasing running related product through the enhancement of self-concept as runner and the perception of brand-self congruity. Thus, sport self-concept as runner and brand-self congruity fully mediated the relationship between running participation and purchase intention. Additionally, the moderating effect of brand-extension fit on the relationship between sport self-concept as runner and brand-self congruity was supported. Overall, the findings of this dissertation contribute to the sport management literature by depicting a potential process for sport organizations to implement CSV. Furthermore, it provides an understanding of how customers, as an important beneficiary, are influenced by organizations’ CSV performance.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. May 2019. Major: Kinesiology. Advisor: Yuhei Inoue. 1 computer file (PDF); x, 196 pages.
Creating Shared Value Through Sport: Investigating The Relationship Between Sport Participation And Customer Purchase Intention.
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