This dissertation develops a genealogy of the environment as an object of politics through the period of neoliberal transition, roughly the late 1960s to the early 1990s. Through a series of case-studies highlighting critical moments in the modern history of the environment, I use archival research, literature analysis, and key informant interviews to show how our current understanding of the environment has co-evolved with some of the forms of governance we have come to associate most closely with neoliberalism. In contrast to existing scholarship, I show that the environment is not simply an object to which neoliberal policies have been applied, but a political problem that entails ongoing negotiations over the legitimacy of market rule, the role of the state in relation to the market, and the value of ecological stewardship. In this way the project challenges the conventional understanding of the relation between neoliberalism and the environment in geographical literature, as well as accounts of neoliberalism that marginalize or ignore environmental governance. In contrast, I show that the problem of nature’s value has been central to neoliberalism from its inception, and remains a key site of politics in the present.