This research attempted to extend the useful applications of ZnO by investigating
ZnO nanoparticles, doping ZnO nanoparticles, characterizing electron injection from dye
molecules into ZnO nanoparticles, and depositing thin films of doped ZnO nanoparticles
using inkjet printing.
Chapter 1 describes research that produced particles ranging from 2.7 nm to 1 μm
of undoped and doped ZnO. These particles were made using solution methods with zinc
acetate and aluminum and gallium nitrate salts as dopants, and the particles were
characterized by ultraviolet visible absorption, photoluminescence, infrared absorption,
and transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The doped ZnO nanoparticles
displayed optical signatures of doping in particles larger than 10 nm. This is significant
because doping of nanoparticles is still not fully understood, and there are few examples
of successfully doping nanoparticles.
Chapter 2 describes the research done toward inkjet printing of ZnO films for
potential use in a fully inkjet printed solar cell. The research aim was to produce a TCO
film of ZnO using inkjet printing that had a bulk resistivity between 10-2 and10-3 Ω cm, a
thickness between 0.1 and 1 μm, the highest transparency possible, and processed using
conditions under 250 ºC. Film produced using solution methods including inkjet printing
were characterized by four point probe ohmmeter, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible
absorption, visible microscopy, profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Inkjet
printed films produced using nanoparticles did not meet the production requirements, but
progress towards these goals are presented along with the successes and shortcoming of
the methods used.
Chapter 3 describes the research done on charge transfer from photoexcited
porphyrin dyes into ZnO nanoparticles dispersions in methanol. The goal of this research
was to further the understanding of the dye-semiconductor interaction and important
electron transfer characteristics. Using a series of three porphyrin dyes and a range of
particle sizes, the rate of electron transfer was investigated.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. June 2013. Major: Chemistry. Advisor: Wayne L. Gladfelter. 1 computer file (PDF); v, 115 pages.
Bierbaum, Andrew Joseph.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles: doping, Inkjet printing, and electron accepting from photoexcited porphyrin dyes.
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