JTLU Volume 15, No. 1 (2022)

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Note: Starting in 2017, the Journal of Transport and Land Use will release articles as they are published. They will no longer be published in three separate issues.
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      The inevitability of automobility: How private car use is perpetuated in a greenfield housing estate
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Kent, Jennifer L.
      Ongoing advances in technologies of connectivity have strengthened our capacity to envision urban environments less dominated by private car use. Yet many cities remain attached to, and defined by, the automobile. In challenging this status quo, we must understand the complex and varied ways private car use is reinforced in different urban environments. This paper provides such an understanding in the context of a low-density, and currently car-dependent, city. It presents a detailed analysis of the system of automobility to demonstrate the way private-car use is unintentionally perpetuated through contemporary practices of planning, developing and inhabiting cities. A newly constructed suburb in Sydney, Australia, provides the case for analysis. The suburb—Oran Park—is a master-planned estate intentionally designed to encourage alternative transport modes that is rendered ostensibly car-dependent as a result of a confluence of historical and contemporary structural and practical influences. The paper combines a detailed examination of the planning, transport and land-use context of the suburb with survey data from 300 of its residents. The paper’s novel contribution is to analyze these data sources using a social practice approach. The analysis lays bare the inevitability of automobility’s reproduction in the estate—describing the litany of elements that are both infrastructural and cultural and that, in orchestration, reproduce private car use. These elements are deconstructed to inform future challenges to the hegemony of the private car.
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      Planning for cycling in local government: Insights from national surveys in Australia and New Zealand
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Babb, Courtney; McLeod, Sam; Noone, Conor
      Despite a broad consensus that cycling can address a range of transportation issues, many countries have struggled to institute measures to increase cycling participation. Even for cities that have achieved marked progress, there remains a gap in making cycling a truly normative mode of transportation. The practical problem of translating research and converting policy vision into broad-based cycling participation has become an increasingly central focus of international cycling scholarship. To examine the challenges of practically planning for cycling, we focus on the role of local government and report on a survey of all urban and major regional local governments in Australia and New Zealand. By analyzing results across the two countries, we diagnose challenges faced by practitioners in implementing measures to support cycling. Key findings suggest there is support among local government officers and stakeholders for cycling to play an increased role in daily transportation, yet this support is much more mixed at the implementation stage of cycling plans, policies, and infrastructure projects. These findings indicate a pressing need to better equip local government practitioners with tools and knowledge to overcome barriers to providing for cycling, particularly in increasingly politicized and complex contexts.
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      Analyzing the association between satisfaction with commuting time and satisfaction with life domains: A comparison of 32 European countries
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Maheshwari, Richa; Van Acker, Veronique; De Vos, Jonas; Witlox, Frank
      Although the majority of literature explains travel satisfaction by examining trip determinants, the interaction between travel satisfaction and satisfaction with other life domains has been analyzed less frequently. Accounting for satisfaction with other life domains is nevertheless important because the effect of trip characteristics on travel satisfaction may be overestimated without considering satisfaction with non-travel-related life domains. Hence, this paper examines the interaction between satisfaction with commuting time, satisfaction with other life domains and overall life satisfaction. An ordered logistic regression has been estimated using a large dataset comprising data from 32 European countries. Results indicate that satisfaction with specific life domains and overall life satisfaction have a significant association with commuting time satisfaction (CTS), while controlling for employment characteristics, and personality (i.e., trust). Of all life domains, job and time-use satisfaction have the strongest associations with CTS. Given the large dataset, we controlled for the contextual differences between the European countries by making a distinction between well- and less-developed countries. The result seems to suggest that all life domains and employment characteristics better explain CTS in well-developed countries than less-developed countries. This paper thus contributes to reporting other innovative ways to obtain high levels of commuting time satisfaction rather than only looking at the interactions with transport mode, travel distance and travel time.
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      Mapping opportunity in time and space: An inductive approach
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Hoelzel, David J.; Scheiner, Joachim
      Several authors delineate "geographies of opportunity," which are assumed to influence individual life courses. In transport geography and related subjects, "opportunity" is a term that is frequently used to circumscribe dynamics of spatial and social mobility. However, previous approaches to opportunity usually apply deductive reasoning in such a way that opportunity represents a local feature whose functional utility impacts individual lives. Such approaches are inadequate for the analysis of individual life courses, as neither the emergence of opportunity nor its meaning for individual motives is sufficiently incorporated. Such neglect may lead to insufficient or even incorrect conclusions about the relation of space, mobility and the life course, because a concept for systematic mappings of opportunities in both individual life courses and space has not yet been developed. This paper aims to reconceptualize opportunity as a personally and socially experienced interrelation between agents and their socio-spatial environment with beneficial outcomes for the respective life courses. With regard to mapping opportunity, pockets of local order and occasions are presented as mappable spatiotemporal entities. Occasions are sections in timespace, which are unique and meaningful to the development of the individual life course. Finally, we discuss implications for empirical application, future research, planning and policy.
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      Not enough parking, you say? A study of garage use and parking supply for single-family homes in Sacramento and implications for ADUs
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Volker, Jamey M. B.; Thigpen, Calvin G.
      Accessory dwelling units (ADUs) are increasingly touted as part of the solution to the intransigent housing shortages facing many metropolitan areas across the United States. But numerous barriers to ADU development persist, including opposition by neighboring households. One persistent question is whether ADU residents would overwhelm on-street parking in the predominately single-family neighborhoods where ADUs are typically built. That question is difficult to answer because there is a surprising dearth of research on the effective parking supply in single-family neighborhoods. We use a survey of homeowners in Sacramento, California, to investigate the supply and sufficiency of residential parking for single-family homes, including how households actually use their garages, and help answer the ADU parking conundrum. After estimating and accounting for actual garage use, we find that more than 75% of households have enough off-street parking available to park all their vehicles. When we combine off-street and on-street parking supplies, we find that households have an average of 1.6 more parking spaces available to them than they have vehicles. That parking surplus is more than enough to accommodate the average ADU tenant and their vehicle, belying claims that ADUs will overwhelm existing parking supplies in single-family neighborhoods.
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      What the heck is a choice rider? A theoretical framework and empirical model
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Guerra, Erick
      As local, state, and federal agencies began investing substantial resources into subsidizing transit in the 1960s and ‘70s, public documents argued that transit agencies should focus on attracting choice riders instead of dependent riders, who have no alternatives and use transit regardless of service quality. After six decades, the definitions, uses, and implications of the terms choice and dependent rider have remained consistent in the academic and professional literature. These definitions, however, lack a strong theoretical grounding or empirical evidence to support them. Using travel diary data from the Philadelphia region, I estimate discrete choice models to identify choice riders, who I define as those who have close to a 50% probability of choosing between a car or transit for a given trip. The Philadelphia region, which has a diverse range of transit users and transit services, is an ideal place to develop and fit an empirical model of choice ridership. Attributes assumed to be associated with dependent riders, such as lack of a car, low income, and being a racial or ethnic minority, are much more prevalent among choice riders than the general metropolitan population. Choice riders are also diverse, with a mix of racial backgrounds, income levels, educational attainment, and access to private cars. Transit dependency, by contrast, is rare. The lowest and highest income residents generally only choose transit when service quality is high, and transit is cost and time competitive with the car.
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      Traffic-land use compatibility and street design impacts of automated driving in Vienna, Austria
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Bruck, Emilia M.; Soteropoulos, Aggelos
      The potential rise of automated vehicles (AVs) may significantly impact future traffic volumes, in turn affecting urban street designs and adjacent land use. While integrated studies on potential traffic and land-use changes due to AVs largely concern issues of location choice and changing settlement patterns, assessments of how AVs may influence the quality of streets depending on the requirements of adjacent land use remain scarce. This paper presents an integrated assessment of the urban effect of AVs on traffic and neighborhoods in Vienna. It provides a methodology to assess whether changing traffic volumes are compatible with the land use of a given neighborhood to approximate street space requirements for shared automated shuttles and to visualize possible trajectories of spatial transformation by considering local development goals. The results show that the opportunities to convert street space and the risks of environmental harm due to AVs will vary across neighborhoods and street typologies. It is crucial for policymakers and planners to consider such contextual differences to gain better insight into the functional requirements and urban consequences of AVs. This assessment aims to shed light on the possible trade-offs of a system change in favor of AVs to help evaluate adequate operational conditions and inform proactive traffic and urban design policies to harness possible implications.
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      Car dependency beyond land use: Can a standardized built environment indicator predict car use?
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Van Eenoo, Eva; Fransen, Koos; Boussauw, Kobe
      In June 2019, the government of the Flemish Region (Belgium) launched the “mobility score,” a standardized built environment indicator that informs citizens in Flanders about the walking or cycling accessibility from their dwelling to a range of basic amenities and public transport stops. The development of the mobility score was developed to be a tool to raise awareness of the environmental impact of travel. Against this backdrop, this paper assesses the extent to which the mobility score can predict car use and aims to contribute to the line of research that studies travel patterns in relation to accessibility, spatial context, and travel mode choice. Based on the data from the Flemish Travel Behavior Survey, we analyze the effect of the interaction between the built environment, frequency of car use and vehicle kilometers traveled. Our findings illustrate that frequent and intensive car use is not an exclusive feature of suburban and rural residents in Flanders, or of those who travel long distances. The outcomes show that the mobility score can predict the frequency of car travel but only in the inner city. As for other areas, travel behavior shows little variance among respondents. The presence of a company car in a household is a much stronger predictor of vehicle kilometers traveled than any other variable, including the built environment. Travel behavior turns toward car use once a household acquires a car, almost regardless of the type of neighborhoods where respondents live. In Flanders, policy has so far been directed more toward curbing car use than discouraging car ownership. Our findings suggest that it could be more effective to aim for the latter, as this prevents the development of a cycle of car-oriented behavior in the first place.
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      Calculating place-based transit accessibility: Methods, tools and algorithmic dependence
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Higgins, Christopher D.; Palm, Matthew; DeJohn, Amber; Xi, Yang Luna; Vaughan, James; Farber, Steven; Widener, Michael; Miller, Eric J.
      To capture the complex relationships between transportation and land use, researchers and practitioners are increasingly using place-based measures of transportation accessibility to support a broad range of planning goals. This research reviews the state-of-the-art in applied transportation accessibility measurement and performs a comparative evaluation of software tools for calculating accessibility by walking and public transit including ArcGIS Pro, Emme, R5R, and OpenTripPlanner using R and Python, among others. Using a case study of Toronto, we specify both origin-based and regional-scale analysis scenarios and find significant differences in computation time and calculated accessibilities. While the calculated travel time matrices are highly correlated across tools, each tool produces different results for the same origin-destination pair. Comparisons of the estimated accessibilities also reveal evidence of spatial clustering in the ways paths are calculated by some tools relative to others at different locations around the city. With the growing emphasis on accessibility-based planning, analysts should approach the calculation of accessibility with care and recognize the potential for algorithmic dependence in their calculated accessibility results.
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      Dockless bike-sharing’s impact on mode substitution and influential factors: Evidence from Beijing, China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Chen, Zheyan; van Lierop, Dea; Ettema, Dick
      As a newly emerged bike-sharing system, dockless bike-sharing has the potential to positively influence urban mobility by encouraging active cycling and drawing users from car, public transit and walking. However, scant empirical research explores the extent to which dockless bike-sharing replaces other travel modes for different travel purposes. There is a lack of knowledge about how dockless bike-sharing users’ personal characteristics and neighborhood environment features influence their mode substitution behaviors. Using survey data collected from residents in Beijing and geodata of land use and public transit, we conduct four multinomial logistic models to explore potential mode-substitution behaviors influenced by dockless bike-sharing for four travel purposes: work or education commuting, sports and leisure, grocery shopping, and recreational activities such as shopping, eating and drinking. The results indicate that, for the majority of respondents, dockless bike-sharing systems potentially substitute for walking or public transit. In addition, our analysis of travel attitudes points out that dockless bike-sharing not only attracts bicycle lovers but also users with a preference or positive attitude toward other travel modes. The positive association between the length of bicycle paths and the likelihood of potentially replacing public transit or motorized vehicles by dockless bike-sharing also reveals that the cycling infrastructure of residential neighborhood could be an important facilitator for users of public transit and motorized vehicles to switch to dockless bike-sharing systems.
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      Spatial mismatch for distinct socioeconomic groups in Xiamen, China
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Li, Yongling; Geertman, Stan; Lin, Yanliu; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Xu, Wangtu; Huang, Jie
      Studies have found that spatial mismatch is a universal phenomenon, although both their substantive and methodological focus can differ substantially. In China, there is a growing body of literature on spatial mismatch, but few studies have measured the degree of spatial mismatch between local and migrant workers in different occupations. To fill this gap, this research investigates the spatial mismatch for different socioeconomic groups in Xiamen according to their "hukou" status and occupation. As one of the country’s first four special economic zones, Xiamen achieved housing marketization earlier than most other Chinese cities, attracting a large amount of capital and migrants, and shaping different spatial patterns of local workers and migrant workers. The findings show that blue-collar, pink-collar, and white-collar workers, who are further categorized as either locals or migrants, experience varying degrees of job accessibility and spatial mismatch. In addition, even though migrant workers experience less spatial mismatch, they still have disadvantages in terms of commuting time due to their travel mode. The results presented in this paper are helpful for understanding the spatial mismatch for various social groups and facilitating sustainable mobility and social equity.
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      Whose express access? Assessing the equity implications of bus express routes in Montreal, Canada
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) DeWeese, James; Santana Palacios, Manuel; Belikow, Anastasia; El-Geneidy, Ahmed
      Express buses—characterized by limited stops and sometimes higher frequencies or priority traffic measures—offer a cost-effective and efficient way to boost service convenience and reliability for riders. This paper assesses how the accessibility benefits of express bus route policy are distributed in Montreal, Canada, while providing a pathway for public transportation agencies to assess their policies and plans. To isolate the impact of bus express routes, we use General Transit Speed Specification (GTFS) data, the Open Trip Planner multimodal routing engine, and the 2013 edition of Montreal’s origin-destination survey to contrast travel time and accessibility at the trip and census-tract levels under two scenarios: one with the existing, complete network and the second a counterfactual scenario with no express bus routes. Our results indicate that bus express routes enable an overall increase in accessibility for the overall population. However, the accessibility benefits do not accrue evenly, as expected, but also tend to benefit a more significant number of higher incomes. This occurs despite the location of low-income populations in some outlying areas of the city, which express bus routes are supposed to serve. This paper closes with policy recommendations that help planners balance economic, environmental, and equity goals, perhaps one of the most complex challenges they face nowadays.
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      Which dots to connect? Employment centers and commuting inequalities in Bogotá
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Peña, Javier; Guzman, Luis A.; Arellana, Julian
      Accessibility and equality evaluations have been primarily focused on residential location. However, workplace location might be an equivalent contributor to inequalities in the travel experience and accessibility. Traditionally, transport planning connects high-demand areas with the best-quality and capacity transport infrastructures. Literature supports that employment centers (EC) receive mainly workers in certain middle-to high-income occupations. This condition results in a type of segregation pattern associated with trip destinations and modal choice similar to those reported for the household location. This paper investigates commuting from a different standpoint, emphasizing the need to consider workplace location and employment distribution within cities. We identify five main EC in Bogotá, Colombia, and explore their association with the commuting mode choice of three population groups using mixed logit models. Results indicate that people who work in any EC tend to use more public transport (PT). Nevertheless, the probability of selecting PT differs among groups. Specifically, for low-income commuters, PT represents lower utility than that for middle-income commuters if their job is located in an EC. The fact that the population most likely to be public transport captive does not find this alternative as attractive as the middle-income segment needs further investigation for better policymaking.
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      Modal equity of accessibility to healthcare in Recife, Brazil
      (Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2022) Cui, Boer; Boisjoly, Geneviève; Serra, Bernardo; El-Geneidy, Ahmed
      In the context of increasing urbanization and income inequality, transport professionals in the Global South need to be prepared to effectively plan for the needs of various groups within the population, particularly for those regarding health and well-being. Accessibility is widely used as a performance measure for land use and transport systems; it measures people’s ease of reaching desired destinations and incorporates mode, time, and/or cost constraints. Considerable differences exist in the level of accessibility experienced by different mode users in reaching healthcare facilities, which calls for additional equity considerations given the prevailing socio-demographic characteristics of the users of various modes and the importance of healthcare facilities as a destination. In this study, we explore the distribution of accessibility to healthcare facilities by public transport and by car in Recife, Brazil, through an equity assessment to identify areas with low accessibility using these modes at different times of day. In general, the higher accessibility of public transport as well as greater modal equity was observed in central regions of Recife, whereas the periphery, where many low-income census tracts can be found, experiences significant inequity when it comes to access by both modes to healthcare facilities. This analysis allowed us to classify locations to access impoverished, access absolutely impoverished, and access impoverished by public transport areas, which can be targeted with appropriate land use and public transport policy interventions. This paper can be of value to professionals and researchers working toward equitable land use and transport systems in the Global South.