The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale
designed to measure depressive symptomatology in
the general population. The items of the scale are
symptoms associated with depression which have
been used in previously validated longer scales. The
new scale was tested in household interview surveys
and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have
very high internal consistency and adequate test-retest
repeatability. Validity was established by patterns
of correlations with other self-report measures,
by correlations with clinical ratings of depression,
and by relationships with other variables which
support its construct validity. Reliability, validity,
and factor structure were similar across a wide
variety of demographic characteristics in the
general population samples tested. The scale should
be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of depression.
Radloff, Lenore S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
Radloff, Lenore Sawyer.
The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.
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