Pre-performance routines (PPR) have been shown to enhance athletes' abilities to concentrate on the skill at hand, control arousal levels, and improve performance. Current research on PPRs has examined a small variety of sports, most notably basketball and golf, in the context of closed skill execution. Furthermore, a majority of studies have examined PPRs at practice or scrimmage situations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between PPRs and the closed skill of serving in volleyball during competition. Gender differences and the relationship between PPRs and competitive anxiety (CA) was also explored. Participants were recruited from two club volleyball organizations at an NCAA Division I university in the Midwestern United States. Video recording were taken of each participant's behaviors prior to completing a serve at regional intercollegiate tournaments to assess PPRs. Additionally, two versions of the Competitive State Anxiety Scale II- directional (CSAI-2(d)) were administered to evaluate the relationship between PPRs and CA. Results indicated that there was no effect of PPRs on serving accuracy. In regard to CA, there was no relationship between CA and PPR maintenance. Women demonstrated a higher maintenance of behavioral serve PPRs, though their serving percentage was not statistically different from the men. These findings indicate that the use of strict PPRs, though effective in some sports, may not have the same effectiveness across sports. Additional research is needed to assess the effectiveness of PPRs on closed skill accuracy for other sports.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. May 2014. Major: Kinesiology. Advisor: Dr. Beth Lewis. 1 computer file (PDF); vi, 68 pages, appendices A-F.
Pre-performance routines among club volleyball players: the relationship between routines and Accuracy in serving.
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