Simulation of Water Temperature, Flow and· Dissolved Oxygen Exchange Processes in Holland Lake

Thumbnail Image

View/Download File

Persistent link to this item

View Statistics

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Simulation of Water Temperature, Flow and· Dissolved Oxygen Exchange Processes in Holland Lake

Published Date



St. Anthony Falls Laboratory




As a part. of the study of dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in Holland Lake, the underlying flow, temperature and material.transport were simulated. In this report the simulation results are being presented. The simulation was two-dimensional to capture the interactions between the shallow and deep subbasins of the lake in addition to the water/air heat and momentum exchange. The vertical cross section in which flow veloCities, water temperatures and· material concelltrations were simulated extended from the westerly shallow ~ubbasin through Jhe deep basin to the northeasterly shallow subbasin. Flow velocities were induced by wind shear on the lake surface and· by buoyancy forces due to temperature differences. Temperatures were in response to heat exchange through the water surface by radiation, convection and evaporation. The two-dimensional model developed for Holland Lake.computed velocities and water temperatures at 5 minutes intervals. Weather conditions (data) observed during the period from July 1 to August 1, 1999 were imposed as boundary conditions. The flow field calculated for the month of July 1999 was then used to investigate. how a material such as dissolved oxygen or dissolved organic carbon is transported from the shallow subbasin to the deep subbasin. These simulations show the intrusion of bottom waters from the shallow subbasins to the metalimnion of the deep basin. This mechanism can explain the rapid DO. depletion of metalimnetic waters in the summer because the bottom waters in the shallow subbasins are known to be low in DO and rich in detrital carbon. The simulation results also show that the low water temperatures associated with groundwater intrusion are largely responsible for the movement of oxygen-poor water from the shallow subbasins into the deep subbasin. The selection of alternative supplemental aeration techniques will benefit from the simulations results. The depth at which aeration systems should be placed, and their location will be guided by the model results.



Related to




Series/Report Number

Funding information

Metro Region Fisheries, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

Isbn identifier

Doi identifier

Previously Published Citation

Suggested citation

Stefanovic, Dragoslav L.; Stefan, Heinz G.. (2000). Simulation of Water Temperature, Flow and· Dissolved Oxygen Exchange Processes in Holland Lake. Retrieved from the University Digital Conservancy,

Content distributed via the University Digital Conservancy may be subject to additional license and use restrictions applied by the depositor. By using these files, users agree to the Terms of Use. Materials in the UDC may contain content that is disturbing and/or harmful. For more information, please see our statement on harmful content in digital repositories.