Students were administered one of three
conventional or one of three stradaptive vocabulary
tests with or without knowledge of results (KR).
The three tests of each type differed in the expected
proportion of correct responses to the test items
and thus in the expected proportion of positive
feedback. Results indicated that the mean maximum-
likelihood estimates of individuals’ abilities
varied as a joint function of KR-provision and test
difficulty. Students receiving KR scored highest on
the most-difficult test and lowest on the least-difficult
test; students receiving no KR scored highest
on the least-difficult test and did most poorly on
the most-difficult test. Although the students perceived
the differences in test difficulty, there were
no effects on mean student anxiety or motivation
scores attributable to difficulty or proportion of
positive feedback alone. Regardless of the proportion
of positive feedback, students reacted very
favorably to receiving KR, and its provision increased
the mean level of reported motivation.
Prestwood, J. Stephen. (1979). Knowledge of results and the proportion of positive feedback on tests of ability. Applied Psychological Measurement, 3, 155-160. doi:10.1177/014662167900300202
Prestwood, J. Stephen.
Knowledge of results and the proportion of positive feedback on tests of ability.
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