Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder in the United States. An estimated 4.4 million children age 4-17 are diagnosed with ADHD, and over half of these children are prescribed medication as part of a treatment regimen. Stimulants are seen as an effective first-line treatment for ADHD, and are often methamphetamine-based. Conclusive evidence exhibits non-pharmaceutical methamphetamine as extremely cariogenic (cavity-causing).
Children with ADHD have been shown to exhibit poorer oral health behavior than children without ADHD, characterized by less frequent brushing. This population also shows a higher prevalence of bruxism (grinding) behavior than children without ADHD. Studies have also indicated a significantly higher DMFS (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces) and higher DS (decayed surfaces) scores in children with ADHD than without. Recent studies that report higher prevalence of caries (cavities) in children with ADHD fail to differentiate between medicated and unmedicated status.
The oral manifestations of stimulants prescribed to children with ADHD are not completely known. The Center for Disease Control has also taken interest in this topic, calling for further study regarding stimulant consumption in children with ADHD because of substantial health risks that might be associated. This study aimed at investigating the connection between stimulant intake in children with ADHD and oral manifestations of drug use.
Burns, Heidi A..
Frequency of Caries in Children Taking Prescribed Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
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