Given that virtual experience generated from sport video gaming is closely similar to consumption experience in actual sport contexts, repetitive sport video gaming is expected to result in favorable attitudes toward a specific sport that are easily accessible from memory, held with strong confidence, and are therefore predictive of subsequent behavior. However, despite the popularity and potential of SVGs as a marketing tool, previous research on new media have ignored the possibility that playing a sport video game and its repetition may affect sport brand attitudes and behavior and also the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship.
This dissertation examined the possibility that repeated video gaming have influences on both evaluative and non-evaluative dimensions of attitudes (attitude accessibility and attitude confidence), and whether such an effect can influence the relationship between attitude and behavior. For this study, one hundred and ninety-seven undergraduate and graduate students at a large Midwestern university were recruited with a convenient sampling method. The hypotheses based on repeated exposure effect were tested using a single factor design with four conditions: single, three, and seven exposure conditions and a direct experience condition.
The results of the study provided evidence that repeated video gaming affects both evaluative and non-evaluative dimensions of attitudes toward the NASCAR brand. Repetition was found to increase liking of the brand under three and seven exposure conditions, but the increment in liking the brand was not statistically significant for the single exposure condition. In addition, the results indicated that brand attitudes based on repeated video gaming are similar to those based on direct experience. This study also showed evidence that repeated exposure to the sport brand plays an important role in attitude-behavior consistency. The findings of the study provide researchers and marketers with benchmark data for future research to explore the potential of video games as a marketing tool for the penetration of a sport into a new market. Implications for advertisers and marketers and direction for future research were discussed.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. February 2010. Major: Education, Rec/Park/Leisure Studies. Advisor: Dr. Stephen D. Ross. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 158 pages, appendices A-D.
The effects of virtual sport experience on brand attitude and attitude strength..
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