We develop a conservative, second order accurate fully implicit discretization in two dimensions of the Navier-Stokes NS and Cahn-Hilliard CH system that has an associated discrete energy functional. This system provides a diffuse-interface description of binary fluid flows with compressible or incompressible flow components [44, 4]. In this work, we focus on the case of flows containing two immiscible, incompressible and density-matched components. The scheme, however, has a straightforward extension to multi-component systems. To efficiently solve the discrete system at the implicit time-level, we develop a nonlinear multigrid method to solve the CH equation which is then coupled to a projection method that is used to solve the NS equation. We analyze and prove convergence of the scheme in the absence of flow. We demonstrate convergence of our scheme numerically in both the presence and absence of flow and perform simulations of phase separation via spinodal decomposition. We examine the separate effects of surface tension and external flow on the decomposition. We find surface tension driven flow alone increases coalescence rates through the retraction of interfaces. When there is an external shear flow, the evolution of the flow is nontrivial and the flow morphology repeats itself in time as multiple pinchoff and reconnection events occur. Eventually, the periodic motion ceases and the system relaxes to a global equilibrium. The equilibria we observe appears has a similar structure in all cases although the dynamics of the evolution is quite different. We view the work presented in this paper as preparatory for the detailed investigation of liquid/liquid interfaces with surface tension where the interfaces separate two immiscible fluids . To this end, we include a simulation of the pinchoff of a liquid thread under the Rayleigh instability at finite Reynolds number.
Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications>IMA Preprints Series
Kim, Junseok; Kang, Kyungkeun; Lowengrub, John.
Conservative multigrid methods for Cahn-Hilliard fluids.
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