International courts have been industrious over the past couple of decades.
International courts such as the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and International Criminal Court (ICC) have become the hot spot for settling jurisdiction of many sorts across borders. Regional human rights courts in Europe, Latin America, and Africa have sought to protect the rights of individuals against government intrusion. As individuals and states increasingly turn to the international judicial system, the risk of “tribunal fatigue” emerges (Alford 2000 p. 160). This has led to “backlash” against these legal bodies and state exit, resulting in growing scholarly attention (Madsen et al. 2018; Voeten 2019) . This research explains the role, agenda, and framework of international courts as unitary entities, but an understanding of international judges with separate individual behaviors and voices has been overlooked.