Given persistent low achievement in mathematics for students in the United States, researchers and practitioners have a vested interest in identifying effective intervention components. This study explored the differential effects of elaborated task feedback (ETF) and elaborated process feedback (EPF) when combined with a cover, copy, compare (CCC) intervention as compared to a repeated practice control condition on students’ fluency and strategy use. The multi-digit multiplication class-wide intervention was implemented in 10-sessions with a sample of 101 students from two suburban schools in the Midwest. Due to an interest in the impact of feedback over time, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and hierarchical generalized linear modeling were used to examine changes in performance across the intervention. Despite an overall strong effect, the impact of feedback can vary by context, delivery, and purpose (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). This study addressed gaps in the feedback literature by providing feedback on strategy use and testing the effects of feedback with elaboration to guide error correction. Non-significant effects were found for both types of feedback on fluency and strategy use. The observed increases in fluency over time across conditions provides additional support for the impact of deliberate, repeated practice in mathematics (e.g. Clarke et al., 2016; Fuchs et al., 2010). Implications of the bidirectional relationship observed between strategy use and fluency as well as the potential moderating effects of individual student characteristics are also explored; implications for practice and future research are discussed. Results underscore the importance of research on interventions targeting mathematics skills beyond single-digit computation.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. May 2020. Major: Educational Psychology. Advisor: Robin Codding. 1 computer file (PDF); viii, 167 pages.
The Differential Effects of Elaborated Task and Process Feedback on Multi-Digit Multiplication.
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