Many U.S. food policies aim to improve access to food for low-income households by either increasing household resources or providing more places to spend resources on healthy foods. In my dissertation I investigate how low-income households respond to policies designed to improve food access. My first chapter explores how policy incentives influence consumer choice of food retail store format. In my second chapter, I pose and test an new explanation for the speed at which U.S. food assistance benefits are spent throughout the month. Finally, my last chapter measures the impact of a food assistance work requirement on labor market outcomes. Each chapter provides novel insights into how low-income households interact with policies to improve access to food.