The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of combined positive and
corrective feedback statements to improve performance in the presence of a challenging
“stretch” goal. A within-subjects design was used to expose participants to four feedback
statement sequences: (1) no feedback, (2) PCP (positive, corrective, positive), (3) CPP
(corrective, positive, positive), and (4) PPC (positive, positive, corrective). Providing
participants with a combination of positive and corrective feedback statements, regardless
of sequence, was hypothesized to lead to higher task performance than not providing
feedback. In addition, although PCP (i.e., the feedback “sandwich”) is the most well
known feedback statement sequence, no differences among the variations of statement
sequencing were hypothesized. Ad hoc analyses were conducted to examine the most
preferred feedback statement sequence and type of feedback (positive or corrective), as
well as the influence that core self-evaluation, job satisfaction, goal commitment, and
stress on performance. Results revealed that (1) task performance was higher (overall)
when feedback was provided versus when no feedback was provided and (2) statistically
significant difference in task performance did not exist across the three feedback
statement sequences. Despite no differential effects on performance, 47% of participants
identified the session during which they received the CPP feedback statement sequence
as their most preferred. Further, 53% of participants self-reported they preferred positive
feedback, while 25% preferred corrective feedback. Individual preferences for feedback
statement sequences support the need for open communication between the feedback
receiver and provider to increase task performance.
A Plan B Research Project Submitted to the Faculty of the University of Minnesota by Areanna Marie Lakowske in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degreee of Master of Arts, May 2016. This item has been modified from the original to remove the signature page present.
University of Minnesota, Duluth. College of Education and Human Service Professions.
Lakowske, Areanna M.
The Influence of Feedback Statement Sequence and a Challenging Goal on Task Performance.
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