A substantial amount of astrophysical evidence indicates that approximately a quarter of all energy in the universe is composed of a nonluminous, and nonbaryonic "dark'' matter. Of the potential dark matter particle candidates, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, is particularly well motivated. As a means to directly detect WIMP interactions with baryonic matter, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) project was established, operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 - 2015, under the CDMS II and SuperCDMS Soudan experiments. CDMS detectors simultaneously measure the ionization and phonon energies of recoil events in Si and Ge crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures in a low-background environment. The ratio of ionization energy to recoil energy serves as a discrimination parameter to separate nuclear recoil events from the electron-recoil background. The next installation, SuperCDMS SNOLAB, is preparing for future operation, with an initial payload of eighteen Ge and six Si, 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick detectors. Of this initial payload, eight Ge and four Si detectors will operate in a high-voltage (~100 V) mode, which have an increased sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs due to decreased energy thresholds. The SuperCDMS test facility at University of Minnesota aids in the detector R&D and characterization of prototype detectors, as part of the scale-up effort for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. This thesis presents the first full ionization and phonon characterization study of a 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick prototype Ge detector with interleaved phonon and ionization channels. Measurements include ionization collection efficiency, surface event rejection capabilities, and successful demonstration of nuclear recoil event discrimination. Results indicate that 100 mm diameter, interleaved Ge detectors show potential for use in SuperCDMS SNOLAB. As part of detector R&D, the Minnesota test facility also looks beyond the next stage of SuperCDMS, investigating larger individual detectors as a means to easily scale up the sensitive mass of future searches. This thesis presents the design and initial testing results of a prototype 150 mm diameter, 33 mm thick silicon ionization detector, which is 5.2 times larger than those used in SuperCDMS at Soudan and 2.25 times larger than those planned for use at SuperCDMS SNOLAB. In addition, the detector was operated with contact-free ionization electrodes to minimize bias leakage currents, which can limit operation at high bias voltages. The results show promise for the operation of both large volume silicon detectors and contact-free ionization electrodes for scaling up detector mass and bias.