As silicon approaches its ultimate scaling limit as a channel material for conventional semiconductor devices, alternate mechanisms and materials are emerging rapidly to replace or complement conventional silicon based devices. Attractive semiconducting properties such as high mobility, excellent interface quality, and better scalability are the properties desired for materials to be explored for electronic and photonic device applications. Hybrid III-V semiconductor based tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) can provide a strong alternative due to their attractive properties such as subthreshold slopes less than 60 mV/decade, which can lead to aggressive power supply scaling. Here, InAs-SiGe-Si based TFETs are studied in detail. Simulations predict that subthreshold slopes as low as 18 mV/decade and on currents as high as 50 µA/µm can be achieved using such a device. However, the simulations also show that the device performance is limited by (1) the low density of states in the source which induces a trade-off between the source doping and the subthreshold slope, limiting power supply scaling, and (2) direct source-to-drain tunneling which limits gate length scaling. Another approach to explore low power alternatives to conventional semiconductor device can be to use emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials. In particular, the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising material group that, like graphene, these material exhibit 2D nature, but unlike graphene, have a finite band gap. In this work, the off-state characteristics are modelled for MoS2 MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors), and their circuit performance is predicted. MoS2 Due to its higher effective masses and large band gap compared to silicon it is shown that MoS2 MOSFETs are well suited for dynamic memory applications. Two of such circuits, one transistor one capacitor (1TIC) and two transistor (2T) dynamic memory cells have been fabricated for the first time. Retention times as high as 0.25 second and 1.3 second for the 1T1C and 2T cell, respectively, are demonstrated. Moreover, ultra-low leakage currents less than femto-ampere per micron are extracted based on the retention time measurements. These results establish the potential of 2D MoS2 as an attractive material for low power device and circuit applications.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation.July 2016. Major: Electrical Engineering. Advisor: Steven Koester. 1 computer file (PDF); x, 112 pages.
Modeling and Fabrication of Low Power Devices and Circuits Using Low-Dimensional Materials.
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