In the course of map-based cloning of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we identified a rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the Rpg1 flanking markers. Based on the excellent gene order colinearity between barley and rice in this region, we expected that this rice BAC would contain the barley Rpg1 homologue. In order to identify the putative rice homologue, we sequenced ca. 35 kb of the rice BAC at random and then an additional 33 kb of contiguous sequence between the two most closely spaced Rpg1 flanking markers. Sequence analysis revealed a total of 15 putative genes, 5 within the 33-kb contiguous region. A rice Rpg1 homologue was not identified, although a gene encoding a hypothetical polypeptide with similarity to a membrane protein could not be eliminated as a candidate. Surprisingly, four of the genes identified in the 33-kb contiguous rice sequence showed a high degree of similarity with genes on Arabidopsis chromosome 4. The genome regions harboring these genes showed some relatedness, but many rearrangements were also evident. These data suggest that some genes have remained linked even over the long evolutionary separation of Arabidopsis and rice, as has also been reported for mammals and invertebrates.