We used paired 2‐block street sections in the Amity Creek watershed (Duluth, MN) to demonstrate the
effectiveness of homeowner BMPs to reduce residential stormwater flow to storm sewers in an older
neighborhood in a cold climate on clay and bedrock geology. Runoff from each street was measured
before and after installation of stormwater BMPs. In addition, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of
residents were measured before and after BMP installation. BMPs were installed on properties of willing
residents of one street (“treatment”). Most residents (22 of 25 properties) willingly participated. 250
trees and shrubs were planted; 22 rain barrels were installed; 5 rain gardens, 12 rock‐sump storage
basins, and 2 swales were constructed; and a stormwater ditch was re‐dug and had 5 ditch checks
installed in it. The post‐project survey indicated an increase in understanding by treatment‐street
residents of where stormwater flowed to and what it affected, and an increase in willingness to accept
at least some responsibility for stormwater runoff. Residents who received BMPs were generally
satisfied with them and would recommend them to others. Runoff reduction proved more difficult to
quantify due to high and inconsistent runoff variability between the paired streets, very few pre‐BMP
installation rain events, and loss of one control street due to re‐paving mid‐project. Capacity of installed
BMPs is approximately 2.5% of the measured stormwater runoff. There is about a 20% greater reduction
in runoff for the treatment street after BMPs were installed than for the control street for small to
moderate storm events; while we would like to attribute this completely to our BMPs, we cannot prove
that other factors weren’t also at work. Peak flows also appear to have been reduced for 1 inch and
smaller rainstorms, but we were unable to accurately measure this reduction. The results are available
on an existing stream education website and are used to educate neighborhood, city of Duluth, and
regional residents on stormwater issues, individual responsibility, and BMP options.
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Contract Number: B10575
This item is a duplicate of another record with the same title (http://hdl.handle.net/11299/189223).
Kleist, Chris; Brady, Valerie; Johnson, Lucinda B; Schomberg, Jesse.
Duluth Residential Stormwater Reduction Demonstration Project for Lake Superior Tributaries.
University of Minnesota Duluth.
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