In many regions of the high-pressure gas turbine, film cooling flows are used to protect the turbine components from the combustor exit hot gases. Endwalls are challenging to cool because of the complex system of secondary flows that disturb surface film coolant coverage. The secondary flow vortices wash the film coolant from the surface into the mainstream significantly decreasing cooling effectiveness. In addition to being effected by secondary flow structures, film cooling flow can also affect these structures by virtue of their momentum exchange. In addition, many studies in the literature have shown that endwall contouring affects the strength of passage secondary flows. Therefore, to develop better endwall cooling schemes, a good understanding of passage aerodynamics and heat transfer as affected by interactions of film cooling flows with secondary flows is required. This experimental and computational study presents results from a linear, stationary, two-passage cascade representing the first stage nozzle guide vane of a high-pressure gas turbine with an axisymmetrically contoured endwall. The sources of film cooling flows are upstream combustor liner coolant and endwall slot film coolant injected immediately upstream of the cascade passage inlet. The operating conditions simulate combustor exit flow features, with a high Reynolds number of 390,000 and approach flow turbulence intensity of 11% with an integral length scale of 21% of the chord length. Measurements are performed with varying slot film cooling mass flow to mainstream flow rate ratios (MFR). Aerodynamic effects are documented with five-hole probe measurements at the exit plane. Heat transfer is documented through recovery temperature measurements with a thermocouple. General secondary flow features are observed. Total pressure loss measurements show that varying the slot film cooling MFR has some effects on passage loss. Velocity vectors and vorticity distributions show a very thin, yet intense, cross-pitch flow on the contoured endwall side. Endwall adiabatic effectiveness values and coolant distribution thermal fields show minimal effects of varying slot film coolant MFR. This suggests the dominant effects of combustor liner coolant. show dominant effects of combustor liner coolant on cooling the endwall. A coolant vorticity correlation presenting the advective mixing of the coolant due to secondary flow vorticity at the exit plane is also discussed.
University of Minnesota M.S.M.E. thesis. December 2016. Major: Mechanical Engineering. Advisor: Terrence Simon. 1 computer file (PDF); xxi, 209 pages.
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Endwall Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Gas Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane with Slot Film Cooling.
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