Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (<4 nm) conjugated molecular wires, and 3) quantitatively extract interfacial properties characteristic to macroscopic junctions, such as energy level alignment and molecule-contact electronic coupling from experimental I-V curves. Here, we lay ground work for creating a more complete picture of charge transport in macroscopically ordered molecular junctions of controlled architecture, length and charge carrier. The polaronic nature of hopping transport has been predicted in long, conjugated molecular wires. Using quantum-based calculations, we modeled ‘p-type’ polaron transport through oligophenylenethiophene (OPTI) wires and assigned transport activation energies to specific modes of nuclear motion. We also show control over ‘n-type’, LUMO-mediated transport in short (~2 nm) redox-active perylenediimide (PDI) SAMs bound to contacts through isocyano linkers. By changing the contact work function (Φ) and temperature, we were able to verify thermally-assisted LUMO transport. Transition voltage spectroscopy and the single level model was employed to fit the experimental I-V curves and extract the electronic coupling (Γ) and the EF-LUMO offset (εl). It was found that εl does not change with Φ (LUMO pinning), while Γ changes with both Φ and temperature. Further, the PDI SAMs could be reversibly chemically gated to modulate the transport. These results help advance our understanding of transport behavior in semiconducting molecular thin films, and open opportunities to engineer improved electronic functionality into molecular devices.