Although the 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend a higher intake of whole grain foods, considerable challenges limit the frequency of use and overall consumption. The objectives of this study were to increase whole grain consumption by gaining a better understanding of whole grain challenges in restaurant settings, along with improving whole-wheat flour (WWF) end-product (tortilla) quality. Current use of whole grains and factors that influence future whole grain use in restaurants were examined with 30 Chinese restaurants via face-to-face or phone interviews. Moreover, the acceptability of brown and white rice was compared in a restaurant setting. Results suggest that future efforts might focus on increasing the availability of brown rice in restaurants, so it becomes an easily accessible and desirable food choice for brown rice eaters. Incorporating WWF into tortillas is a practical approach to introduce more whole grains into the American diet and potentially increase whole grain consumption. Reducing the median particle sizes of WWFs from ~175 μm to ~130 μm would significantly improve the WWF tortilla quality. In addition, A leavening system including 2% sodium bicarbonate (and equivalent SALP acid), 177°C hot-press temperature, and 25°C dough temperature would be most suited to produce more opaque WWF tortillas. Lastly, sprouted WWF would bring benefits to WWF tortilla’s baking performance, i.e. better appearance, higher consumer acceptability, and longer shelf life. Therefore, with an optimal particle size range, optimized chemical leavening system and processing condition, and the incorporation of sprouted WWF, the quality of whole wheat tortilla has been improved.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. August 2016. Major: Food Science. Advisor: Leonard Marquart. 1 computer file (PDF); xv, 157 pages.
Increasing the understanding of whole grain use and consumption, and improving whole wheat tortilla quality.
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