Autoignition is an important phenomenon and a tool in the design of combustion engines. To study autoignition in a canonical form a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent autoigniting hydrogen jet in vitiated coflow conditions at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 is performed. A detailed chemical mechanism for hydrogen-air combustion and non-unity Lewis numbers for species transport is used. Realistic inlet conditions are prescribed by obtaining the velocity eld from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow simulation. To perform this simulation a scalable modular density based method for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible reacting flows is developed. The algorithm performs explicit time advancement of transport variables on structured grids. An iterative semi-implicit time advancement is developed for the chemical source terms to alleviate the chemical stiffness of detailed mechanisms. The algorithm is also extended from a Cartesian grid to a cylindrical coordinate system which introduces a singularity at the pole r = 0 where terms with a factor 1/r can be ill-defined. There are several approaches to eliminate this pole singularity and finite volume methods can bypass this issue by not storing or computing data at the pole. All methods however face a very restrictive time step when using a explicit time advancement scheme in the azimuthal direction ($\theta$) where the cell sizes are of the order $\Delr\Del\theta$. We use a conservative finite volume based approach to remove the severe time step restriction imposed by the CFL condition by merging cells in the azimuthal direction. In addition, fluxes in the radial direction are computed with an implicit scheme to allow cells to be clustered along the jet's shear layer. This method is validated and used to perform the large scale turbulent reacting simulation. The resulting flame structure is found to be similar to a turbulent diusion flame but stabilized by autoignition at the flame base. Mass-fraction of the hydroperoxyl radical, HO2, peaks in magnitude upstream of the flame's stabilization point indicating autoignition. A flame structure similar to a triple-flame, with a lean premixed flame and a rich premixed flame flanking a thick diffusion flame is identified by the flame index. Radicals formed in the shear layer ahead of ignition and oxygen from the coflow do not get fully consumed by the flame and are transported along the edges of the flame brush into the core of the jet. Ignition delays from a well-stirred reactor model and an autoigniting diffusion flame model are able predict the lift-off height of the turbulent flame. The local entrainment rate was observed to increase with axial distance until the flame stabilization point and then decrease downstream. Data from probes placed along the flame reveals a highly turbulent flow field with variable composition at a given location. In general however, it is observed that the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is very high in cold fuel rich mixtures and is lowest in hot fuel lean mixtures. Autoignition occurs at the most-reactive hot and lean mixture fractions where the TKE is the lowest.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. November 2015. Major: Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics. Advisor: Krishnan Mahesh. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 122 pages.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Autoigniting Hydrogen Jets.
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