The historical setting of the Hellenistic period in the Peloponnese has been covered in great detail in scholarly literature, as well as the scope of Hellenistic religion and the role of monumental temples during this period. However, the role of small extra-urban temples has been somewhat overlooked in favor of larger and more easily accessible temples within the city or predominant sanctuary. The Peloponnese is rich in such modest rural temples, all exhibiting architectural similarities which I will show point to not only a specific architectural style in this region but a multi-functional role of these small temples for the city and surrounding landscape. The overarching goal of the dissertation is to examine how the role of the pastoral temple contributed to the agenda of the city and community. This is the first comprehensive description, examination, and collection of these modest yet pivotal temples from the Hellenistic period in the Peloponnese. I posit that the built environments of the city and countryside functioned together, rather than in opposition to each other as is often suggested: the temples do not merely reflect the socio-political ideals and identity of the city, but actively participate in and shape these agendas. Some of these small temples were administered by the city state, but located outside the urban space and functioned as markers of expansion and territorial influence of the city and as regional centers for cults uniting the rustic population. Additionally, some sites, although being under administration of nearby city states, served to hold a stance of neutrality between extra-urban populations in instances of trade or for those seeking temporary asylum. In turn, what made these temples so critical to the rising poleis is that they bolstered civic identity, social cohesion and territorial integrity among a diverse constituency. In doing this, the rural sanctuaries engaged networks of community through already established ties of cult which was especially vital to the formation of major cities seeking to establish and legitimize their political position. The impressive result of these efforts was a common sense of history and community, strengthening the ethnos in these areas.