With the increasing demand for embedded and mobile systems to support wide breadth of applications with tight power budgets as well as increased heat dissipation in processors due to increased operating frequencies and processing capacity per chip with technology scaling, energy efficiency in VLSI systems has become a critical constraint. On the other hand with technology scaling into sub nm, energy efficiency due to scaling is diminished due to increased process variability. Process variations result in delay deviations. Voltage over scaling is considered as an effective technique to reduce energy consumption. Process variability and voltage over scaling result in timing errors. This thesis focuses on understanding the effects of timing error on different multiplier arithmetic units, since multipliers are the one of the key hardware blocks in signal processing systems as well as general purpose processors and consume considerable amount of power. It is observed that different hardware implementations of same multiplier function may respond very differently to timing errors. Hence few architectures are inherently more error resilient to timing errors and selection of appropriate architecture will result in better energy efficiency under voltage over scaling or over clocking. Second part of the thesis presents that same multiplier architecture will have different error statistics for different input distributions. Since most of the real signals used in signal processing systems and communication systems are Gaussian distributed, multiplier architectures are tested for Gaussian inputs and observations show that performance under timing induced error is worse for Gaussian distributed inputs than uniformly distributed inputs.