Urban nutrient sustainability faces challenges of both too much and too little: Excess nutrient loading to the environment can degrade ecosystem functions and impact human health, while at the same time depleting nonrenewable nutrient sources and moving nutrients into unrecoverable pools. Most studies and efforts to date have focused on source reduction, identifying and reducing the largest drivers of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) consumption. However, this addresses only one aspect of urban nutrient cycling; processes that transport, transform, or retain nutrients also determine their eventual fate as pollution, inert storage, or recycling. The first chapter examined C, N, and P output fluxes from ~2,700 households in the Twin Cities metropolitan area (Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA), and tracked these fluxes through various transformations in the waste streams to their eventual fates. We found few opportunities to redirect pollutant fluxes to either inert storage or recycling; reducing household nutrient pollution must rely primarily on reducing consumption. High pollution fluxes were driven not only by household nutrient outputs, but also by waste-management practices (e.g. septic vs. sewer) and spatial considerations. In contrast, we found substantial opportunities to increase household N and P recycling by ten-fold, which could potentially exceed household inputs of N and P in food. To complement this study of opportunities for improving nutrient waste management, the second and third chapters examined opportunities to manage the biophysical environment - specifically, the urban forest - to reduce nutrient pollution. We focused on the role of urban trees driving N and P movement from land to water, both leaching to groundwater and loading to stormwater. In the second chapter, we compared nutrient leaching under 33 trees of 14 species, as well as open turfgrass areas, and explored correlations with soil nutrient pools and plant functional traits. Trees had similar or lower N leaching than turfgrass in 2012 but higher N leaching in 2013; trees reduced P leaching compared with turfgrass in both 2012 and 2013, deciduous trees more than evergreens. Scaling up our measurements to the Capitol Region Watershed (~17,400 ha), we estimated that trees reduced P leaching to groundwater by 533 kg in 2012 and 1201 kg in 2013. Removing the same amounts of P with stormwater infrastructure would cost $2.2 million and $5.0 million per year, respectively. In the third chapter, we measured tree litter nutrient inputs to street gutters, which can ultimately contribute to stormwater loading, under four species of boulevard trees. Differences among tree species in the total amount of nutrients in the street gutters were driven primarily by interspecific differences in the mass of litter dropped, which were much greater than differences in litter chemistry. In developing management recommendations, we found that tree phenology is a more important consideration than litter chemistry. Cleaning up spring and autumn pulses of tree litter shortly after they fall has substantial potential to reduce nutrient inputs to stormwater; for autumn litterfall, we estimated that doing so could remove 219.0-274.4 kg N km-2 and 14.2-20.6 kg P km-2. Because of the wide variation in species' litterfall timing, achieving this goal is likely to require adjusting both boulevard tree selection and litter cleanup strategies.