To study if there is any association of caffeine with mortality secondary to cardiovascular disease in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, we used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File. Out of 1083 survivors of stroke or MI, 51 died of stroke, 117 of MI and 305 of ischemic heart disease, during a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 5.2 years. Using Cox-proportional hazard model adjusted for vascular risk factors, among survivors of cardiovascular disease relative risk (RR) for fatal stroke (RR=0.3), fatal cardiovascular disease (RR=0.5) and all-cause mortality (RR=0.7) was significantly lower among those with caffeine consumption of 3+ cups per day (vs no caffeine). Similarly, among survivors of stroke, RR for stroke related mortality was lower in those with 3+ cups of caffeine consumption per day. In conclusion, caffeine consumption may be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular death.
University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. May 2015. Major: Clinical Research. Advisor: Russell Luepker. 1 computer file (PDF); vi, 23 pages.
Association of Caffeine Use on Mortality in Survivors of Stroke and Myocardial Infarction. An analysis of Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Follow-up Study.
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