The purpose of this dissertation was to explicate the lower and higher order structure of interpersonal dimensions of personality: Extraversion and Agreeableness. First, measurement reliability and the lower level structure of Extraversion and Agreeableness were examined. Each of these traits have been hypothesized to be part of a different higher order personality factor (Alpha and Beta). I examined how Extraversion and Agreeableness relate to Alpha and Beta and ultimately a general factor of personality. Specifically, multiple reliability generalization studies were conducted, divergent relationships with other Big Five traits were analyzed, and relations among facets were examined and subjected to structural equation modeling. First, multiple meta-analyses focused independently on Agreeableness and the following Agreeableness-related variables: Trusting, Modesty, Cooperation, Not Outspoken, Lack of Aggression, Non-Manipulative, Nurturance, Tolerance, Warmth, and Interpersonal Sensitivity. These studies examined: 1) measurement reliability of global measures and potential facet measures of Agreeableness, and 2) divergent validities to further clarify Agreeableness' facets and structure. Some differences in reliability were found with Global Agreeableness measures having the highest internal consistency reliability and Cooperation and Modesty having lower reliability. Test-retest indicated much stability over time. In the personality domain even though simple structure is not expected or observed, Agreeableness appeared to have the following personality facets: Cooperation, Lack of Aggression, Nurturance, and Modesty, and to a lesser extent Non-Manipulativeness. Next, multiple meta-analyses focused independently on Extraversion and the following Extraversion-related variables: Positive Emotions, Sociability, Sensation Seeking, Dominance, and Activity. These studies examined: 1) measurement reliability of global measures and potential facet measures of Extraversion and 2) divergent validities to further clarify Extraversion's facets and structure. Some differences in reliability were found with Global Extraversion measures having the highest internal consistency reliability and Sensation Seeking having lower reliability. Test-retest indicated much stability over time. Again, though simple structure is not expected or observed in personality, Extraversion appeared to have the following personality facets: Sociability, Dominance, Positive Emotions, Sensation Seeking, and Activity. Finally, an additional study aimed to further understand Extraversion and Agreeableness measures in higher order hierarchical models of personality. These meta-analytic studies examined personality relationships in terms of a general factor of personality, specifically, investigating the magnitude of the general factor saturation in measures of personality measures in general. Findings showed that a model with only a single general factor did not fit the data as well as an interfactor (correlated alpha and beta) model or a hierarchical model. Also a moderator of the size of the general factor was whether the data came from within the same inventory or between different inventories. Data that came from within inventories showed a larger general factor than data that came from between inventories. The meta-analytic correlation between Agreeableness and Extraversion was rho = .20 within inventory and rho =.09 between inventory. Agreeableness loaded moderately on Alpha/Stability and Extraversion loaded highly on Beta/Plasticity.Taken together, these results indicate that while Extraversion and Agreeableness are both interpersonal traits, they each have their own specific facets and belong to different higher order factors of personality. While these higher order factors are positively correlated, the strength of this overlap is moderated by whether the personality measures on which the data is based come from the same inventory or different inventories as well as the specific factor analytic approach utilized.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. June 2012. Major: Psychology. Advisor: Deniz S. Ones, John P. Campbell. 1 computer file (PDF); x, 259 pages, appendices A-D.
Davies, Stacy Eitel.
Lower and higher order facets and factors of the interpersonal traits among the big five: specifying, measuring, and understanding extraversion and agreeableness.
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