The purpose of this study was to explore possible causal factors for level of teachers' adoption of technology in teaching and learning. Furthering the understanding of the factors related to teachers' technology adoption may facilitate increased levels of technology integration in the teaching and learning process. Based on previous research and Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovations theory, the ex post facto causal comparative research design examined relationships between teachers' technology adoption and age, gender, level of education, teaching experience, technology anxiety, perceived barriers to technology integration, technology available for use in teaching, training sources utilized, and the main predictor variable subject area. Utilizing online survey methods, the Kotrlik-Redmann Technology Integration Survey (2002) was utilized to collect data from 187 Minnesota teachers within the subject areas of business, English language arts, math, science, and social studies. Statistical analysis of the data, conducted via SPSS, included descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Gabriel's post hoc tests, Pearson's chi-square tests, and multiple regression techniques. Findings suggest that technology adoption was significantly associated with the predictor variables technology anxiety, barriers to technology integration, technology available for teaching, and whether or not the teacher utilized college courses as a training source. Further, teachers' level of technology adoption differed by subject area. Business teachers adopted technology at significantly higher levels than other subject area teachers, especially math and science teachers. The findings of the study revealed technology anxiety perceived by teachers was fairly low. No significant main effects were found for technology anxiety between subject area teachers. Technology anxiety was negatively correlated with technology adoption, as technology anxiety increased teachers' level of technology adoption decreased. Teachers in this study reported low-to-moderate barriers to integrating technology in teaching and learning, with business teachers experiencing significantly lower barriers than other teachers. The findings of this study revealed a negative relationship between technology integration barriers and technology adoption, as barriers decreased, technology adoption increased. Most teachers utilized a variety of training sources such as self-teaching, workshops/conferences, colleagues, and completing college courses. Business teachers were most likely and social studies teachers were least likely to use college courses as a training source. Whether or not a teacher utilized college courses or self-teaching as a technology training source were significantly related to technology adoption. Findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between technology available and technology adoption, as the technology available for teaching increased teachers' level of technology adoption increased. Further, relationships existed between subject area and the technologies teachers had available for their use in teaching. Business teachers had significantly more technology available for their use than math or science teachers.
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. March 2014. Major: Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development. Advisor: Judith J. Lambrecht. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 167 pages, appendices A-J.
Technology integration in education: an examination of technology adoption in teaching and learning by secondary teachers in Minnesota.
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