University of Minnesota Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center
To assess the degree of compensatory smoking in those who reduce their cigarette intake, researchers at the University of Minnesota
Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (UMN TTURC)measured levels of total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (total NNAL) in the urine of light smokers and of heavy smokers who reduced their cigarette use by at least 40%.
National Institutes of Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Le, C.T.; Shang, Y.; Joseph, A.M.; Mooney, M.E.; Carmella, S.G.; Hecht, S.S..
Cigarette reduction: Can it reduce exposure to toxins?.
University of Minnesota Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center.
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