Cooling of lakes through the water surface at a constant per unit area
rate causes, under calm conditions, the development of a horizontal
temperature gradient along the littoral slope, since water columns of different
depths have different rates of temperature change. The temperature gradient
gives rise to a convective circulation that consists of a cool undercurrent and
an unstable surface return flow. This thermally induced circulation initiates
water exchange between the littoral and pelagic regions with potential for
transport of dissolved constituents, thereby affecting the water quality of the
Horsch, Georgios M.; Stefan, Heinz G..
Cooling-induced Convective Littoral Currents in Lakes: Simulation and Analysis.
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.
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