The current study seeks to examine the empirical correlates of historical trauma and gang
awareness and involvement. These correlates emanate from historical trauma and are
compounded by present day struggles and include: attitudes toward school, parental
warmth and support, parental monitoring, substance use, and cultural loss. The data from
this project is from an 8-year lagged sequential study with the first wave beginning in
2002 which focuses on four American Indian reservations in the Northern Midwest and
four reserves in Canada. The sample for this analysis consists of 695 children aged 11 to
15 years old on American reservations and Canadian First Nation Reserves. The sample
contains 350 adolescent males and 345 adolescent females. Results show that gender and
parental warmth and support have no effect on gang involvement and awareness. Age,
location, attitudes toward school, parental monitoring, substance use, and cultural loss
were correlated with gang involvement and awareness.
University of Minnesota M.A. thesis. June 2011. Major: Criminology. Advisor: Melissa Walls, Ph.D.. 1 computer file (PDF); iii, 40 pages.
Feldmeier, Jenna Kathleen.
Emergence of indigenous gangs in the Upper Midwest: an inquiry into the lives of gang-involved youth..
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