Holland Lake, a small but deep mesotrophic lake in the Twin Cities Metropolitan
Area, has been considered by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division
of Fisheries, for stocking with brown trout. Holland Lake, with a surface area of 0.14
km:2 (35 acres) and a maximum depth of about 18.8 m (61 ft) consists of two shallow
bays covered with rooted macrophytes and a deep main basin. The deep basin is
thermally suitable for brown trout. However, due to a high oxygen depletion rate in
summer, the lake becomes anoxic below the surface mixed layer. The field study
conducted in the summer of 1999 by the authors concluded that several mechanisms, all
regarding some sort of horizontal advection process, could explain the observed high
dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion rates: transport of detrital material from the shallow
bays, density currents combined with sediment oxygen demand in the shallow bays and
flushing effect by groundwater flow through the lake. Density currents from the shallow
bays were attributed to the temperature regimes of the shallow bays.
To aid in the design of an aeration system for the lake, a new field study was
conducted in the summer of 2000 to quantify the potential groundwater flow through the
lake, especially through the shallow bays. The field study included the measurement of
groundwater piezometric heads underneath the lake bed using a potentiomanometer and
DO concentrations and temperatures of groundwater. In addition, the water temperature
profiles were measured at several locations in the shallow bays to investigate the
potential for density currents.
Metro Region Fisheries, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Mohseni, O.; Stefan, H. G..
Groundwater Interactions with Holland Lake, MN.
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory.
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