The largest single industrial use of water in the United States is for
cooling purposes. Large quantities of the resulting warm water are discharged into natural bodies of water. The flow pattern of the warmer water
in the colder recipient can be controlled to a certain extent by the outlet
design. The following study was undertaken to show some aspects of the flow
of warm water into a colder body of water. There is a substantial difference
between the flow of cooling water into a flowing stream and into a stagnant
impoundment. Only the latter case was considered. The outlet was an open
channel discharging the warm water at the water surface of the impoundment.
Department of the Interior Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
Stefan, Heinz G.; Schiebe, Frank R..
Experimental Study of Warm Water Flow into Impoundments Part I: Flow and Heat Exchange Near a Surface Outlet in Two-Dimensional Flow.
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory.
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